Precaution should be taken before initiating exercise program in a diabetic person
Find out which activities will be safe for you. Preparing the individual with diabetes for a safe and enjoyable exercise program is as important as exercise itself. The young individual in good metabolic control can safely participate in most activities. The middle-aged and older individual with diabetes should be encouraged to be physically active. The aging process leads to a degeneration of muscles, ligaments, bones, and joints, and disuse and diabetes may exacerbate the problem. Before beginning any exercise program, the individual with diabetes should be screened thoroughly for any underlying complications. So get a check up first! The diabetics can exercise like a healthy person. However, exercise in a haphazard manner may harm you. If you start the exercise after the age of 40 years, your complete physical check up is essential. Many people start exercise immediately if they develop high blood sugar to reduce it. It may harm. You must exercise after the blood sugar becomes normal. The checkup will help ensure that your exercise program will not increase your risk for diabetes complication.For example diabetic eye disease could become more severe by exercise that involves jumping or jogging. So heart, blood pressure, kidney disease and retina tests must be performed. The blood circulation in legs must be checked as well.
Aerobic exercise should be recommended, but taking precautionary measures for exercise involving the feet is essential for many patients with diabetes. Many people with diabetes have problems with the nerves in their feet and legs, sometimes without even knowing it. So it's important that you wear shoes that fit well and have plenty of room when you exercise. Otherwise you could develop blisters or other sores on your feet that can lead to infection and other problems. The use of silica gel or air midsoles as well as polyester or blend (cotton-polyester) socks to prevent blisters and keep the feet dry is important for minimizing trauma to the feet. Proper footwear is essential and must be emphasized for individuals with peripheral neuropathy. Check your feet for blisters or sores before and after exercising. If you have wound, cut, numbness in legs, get them cured and then start the exercise.
When you're exercising, your body uses more fluid to keep you cool. By the time you feel thirsty, you may already be getting dehydrated. Proper hydration is also essential, as dehydration can effect blood glucose levels and heart function adversely. Exercise in heat requires special attention to maintaining hydration. Adequate hydration prior to exercise is recommended (e.g., 17 ounces of fluid consumed 2 h before exercise). During exercise, fluid should be taken early and frequently in an amount sufficient to compensate for losses in sweat reflected in body weight loss, or the maximal amount of fluid tolerated. Precautions should be taken when exercising in extremely hot or cold environments.
Talk to your health care team about which activities will be safe for you. Your health care provider’s advice will depend on the condition of your heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, feet, and nervous system. They may recommend that you have an exercise stress test to see how your heart reacts to exercise. If the tests show signs of disease, ask what physical activities will help you without making your conditions worse.
Check your blood sugar level before and after exercising.
Carbohydrate-based foods should be readily available during and after exercise.
Avoid exercise if fasting glucose levels are >250 mg/dl and ketosis is present, and use caution if glucose levels are >300 mg/dl and no ketosis is present.
Ingest added carbohydrate if glucose levels are <100 mg/dl.