Advanced Prostate Cancer
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This post was prompted by one from Attitude67 & a response by Joel, who did not experience a lengthening of his PSA doubling time [PSADT].

The classic human study by Allan Pantuck [1] is now ten years old:

"A phase II ... clinical trial for men with rising PSA after surgery or radiotherapy was conducted. Eligible patients had a detectable PSA >0.2 and <5 ng/mL and Gleason score ≤7. Patients were treated with 8 ounces of pomegranate juice daily (Wonderful variety, 570 mg total polyphenol gallic acid equivalents) until disease progression."

"PSA doubling time significantly increased with treatment from a mean of 15 months at baseline to 54 months posttreatment."

"In vitro assays comparing pretreatment and posttreatment patient serum on the growth of LNCaP showed a 12% decrease in cell proliferation and a 17% increase in apoptosis."

Note that only 3 of the 48 men had a Gleason Number of 4 (presumably Gleason Score = 3+4, rather than 4+3), & some men had a GS as low as 5.  Athough the men had failed primary treatment, the cancers were perhaps still local.  &, since PSADT was being measured, cases where the men might suddenly switch to ADT had to be excluded.

So men with GS=8-10 or bone mets might not experience such a dramatic effect on PSADT.

Pantuck was back in 2015 [2] with 183 men: "extract N=102; placebo N=64; juice N=17"

The placebo arm did well, with PSADT increasing from 11.1 to 15.6 months.  LOL

"Compared with placebo, pomegranate extract did not significantly prolong PSADT in prostate cancer patients with rising PSA after primary therapy. A significant prolongation in PSADT was observed in both the treatment and placebo arms."

Interestingly, "extract patients experienced a 12 month change in median PSADT from 13.6 at baseline to 25.6 months"

The history of farming has many threads, but an important one involves taste.  For the most part, there has been an unrelenting selection for less bitterness, resulting in a loss of beneficial polyphenols (& increased sugar).  White corn is a good example - it has virtually no polyphenols.  None!  People love it.   In contrast, the blue corn chip with its anthocyanins is a veritable health food.

I question the use of POM Wonderful fruit in the first study, & presumably the second (where the extract would have been POMx), but who else is going to fund a pomegranate study?  POM Wonderful has been engineered to the American palate.  There has to be a richer source of polyphenols.

Other products:

[A]  Pomegranate P40p.

"P40p™ was developed by Polifenoles Naturales, S.A. (“Polinat”), based in Las Palmas (Canary Island), Spain."  "P40p™ pomegranate extract is standardized to a minimum of 40% punicosides and a minimum of 50% total polyphenols. P40p™ contains high levels of antioxidants and natural compounds which may help to ...." etc.


Nothing worth quoting from their site.

[C]  ProstatePom.  [Identical to CardioPom.]  *

*  One of the most knowledgable pomegranate researchers is Ephraim Lansky, who moved to Israel from America to pursue his research.  He is an advocate of using extracts from the leaf, flower, seed & pericarp - as well as the juice.  He has warned that one should not judge pomegranate products solely on the basis of ellagic acid content.

From one study involving PC-3 PCa cells [3]:

"Four pure chemicals, ellagic acid (E), caffeic acid (C), luteolin (L) and punicic acid (P), all important components of the aqueous compartments or oily compartment of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum), and each belonging to different representative chemical classes and showing known anticancer activities, were tested as potential inhibitors of in vitro invasion of human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in an assay employing Matrigel artificial membranes. All compounds significantly inhibited invasion when employed individually. When C, P, and L were equally combined at the same gross dosage (4 microg/ml) as when the compounds were tested individually, a supradditive inhibition of invasion was observed"

{Lansky even coauthored a book on the pomegranate:

The Holzman's who founded [C], did so with Lansky.  The extract process involved fermentation, which occurred in Israel.  Eventually, Lansky was out of the picture & there is no longer expensive shipping of fruit to Israel.  But I am assured that the process has been retained.

The Resnick's who founded POM Wonderful tend to dominate the market.  Lynda Resnick has run up against the FDA with her aggressive marketing.  The Catch 22 of funding a PCa study, is that using the study results to promote a product, automatically turns the product into a drug as far as the FDA is concerned.  Drug approval takes years & a lot of money.

Meanwhile Kim Holzman can sell ProstatePom by avoiding the Resnick hype, & without the FDA kicking up a fuss.


I'd like to see a study that compares products in terms of actual content, & perhaps also the effect on human PCa tumors in mice.


[1] clincancerres.aacrjournals....



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blue corn chip with its anthocyanins is a veritable health food.? Have you noticed the amount of vegetable oils they smear into that stuff? Eating that junk is throwing gas on a prostate fire. 


Agreed - it was a joke.

Regarding the type of oil in a packaged food, I don't know why labels often list two or more oils, as though the actual oil used was of little concern to the manufacturer & of no interest to the consumer.

A food industry insider once wrote that if such a list ends in cotton seed oil, then that was the oil used - it is always cheaper than the others.



You tube the making of vegetable oil, yikes!


For several years I used POMs extract to avoid the sugar content of liquid.  I finally recognized that I was not seeing any effect on my cancer numbers and since stopping the extract about a year ago, I still see no effect in that stopping.  Just a personal observation. 

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Do you think it might have had any effect at all in terms of preventing the cancer from progressing, even if ever so slight? I use both the juice and pills.


One of the striking things about PCa is the volume of research on natural substances.  It can be frustrating trying to find encouraging studies for friends & neighbors with other cancer types.  The most recent death here was of a woman with non-small cell lung cancer.  All I could find was that vitamin D deficiency dramatically increased risk & outcome.  She asked her oncologist to run a test & he called her in a panic: "You have almost no vitamin D in your body!"  He injected 35,000 IUs of D2 (Ugh!) to start with, but she was far gone.

In contrast, we have dozens of substances with deep research behind them, where there might be incremental benefit.  I feel very strongly that there is a case to be made for plant polyphenols.  They all seem to inhibit NFkB & thereby prevent the transcription of the enzymes that convert arachidonic acid to its inflammatory metabolites.

Proof of activity can be demonstrated by their effect on markers of inflammation, particularly CRP & albumin.  Amazingly, these markers are indepensently associate with 5 year survival enen in people who have not been diagnosed with disease.  Doses can be adjusted to get the desired result without too much concern as to toxicity (an exception is EGCG from green tea which can stress the liver.)

If I can use polyphenols to control inflammation, I know that I have some control over NFkB.  NFkB activation is an obligatory response to bacterial & viral insult.  The purpose is to place a moratorium on apoptosis (cell death).  Normally, cell death & cell division are in balance.  With disease, cell death might outstrip cell division, which would be a disaster for many organs.

But cancer activates NFkB chronically.

NFkB also triggers cell signaling pathways that promote cell survival.  Including pathways associated with treatment resistance.

Pomegranate "polyphenols including ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and other flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, and luteolin glycosides)" [1]

"Among seed, peel, and juice, the peel is the constituent which possesses higher content of polyphenols [6]. This part of the fruit contains ellagitannins. Punicalagin, a large polyphenol with a molecular weight greater than 1000, is unique to pomegranate and is part of a family of ellagitannins that includes the minor tannins punicalin and gallagic acid. Punicalagin represents the bioactive constituent responsible for >50% of the antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice [7]. Pomegranate also contains other polyphenols, such as anthocyanins (3-glucosides and 3,5-glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin) and flavonols [8]."

The section on PCa from [1] appears below.

Note that there are differential affects on the various PCa cell lines, indicating that not everyone will experience the same benefit.  Also, some cells might react to the seed oil more than the juice, e.g..

Note also the importance of the pericarp, which is not normally eaten but can contribute to the total polyphenol content of extracts.



3.2.2. Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer represents the most common cancer in man. It is estimated for 2014 that in US 233 000 men will develop prostate cancer and 29480 will die from prostate cancer [75]. Nowadays there is lack in the treatment of this disease except for the surgery and radiation approach applicable for prostate cancer in early stage. Among all natural compounds studied for the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer, pomegranate has been proven to possess relevant in vitro and in vivo beneficial effects.

Tissue androgens play a pivotal role in facilitating signaling pathways mediated by androgen receptor leading to prostate cancer progression. During the initial phase, prostate cancer is an androgen-regulated disease that subsequently evolves in an androgen-independent one [76]. Therefore, androgens and their receptors are essential for prostate cancer development, growth, and progression. Treatment of androgen-dependent LNCaP, androgen-independent LNCaP-AP, an engineered cell line overexpressing androgen receptor, and androgen-independent DU145 with pomegranate extract (50 μg/mL) and pomegranate juice (powder form, 100 μg/mL) resulted in the reduction of the expression levels of genes involved in androgen biosynthesis, such as 5α-reductase type I and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II [77]. Furthermore, a recent study investigated the effects of an ethanolic pomegranate extract on androgen biosynthesis pathways on two human prostate cancer cell lines as well as a murine model of prostate cancer (conditional PTEN knockout model, representing a comprehensive model for tumor initiation and progression through all stages of prostate cancer to metastatic disease). Pomegranate extract reduced the concentration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone generated through steroid biosynthesis pathways and decreased the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In vivo data evidenced that pomegranate administered orally in drinking water at a concentration of 0.17 g/L significantly decreased dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and pregnenolone. The decreased ratios indicating the reduced percentages between samples and controls were 42.1%, 80.3%, and 36.5%, respectively [78].

Several groups reported the ability of pomegranate juice or extract to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. In particular, fermented juice polyphenols and pericarp polyphenols showed cell death induction in three prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP) [79]. PC3 is an androgen-independent cell line characterized by a high invasive and metastatic potential; DU145 is also an androgen-independent cell line, highly proliferative but with a moderate metastatic potential; LNCaP is an androgen-dependent cell line characterized by functional androgen receptors and the ability to secrete PSA. Fermented juice and pericarp polyphenols in concentration between 20 and 100 μg/mL have been found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in all three prostate cancer cell lines [79].

In cell-cycle progression, the transition between G1 and S phase is regulated by cyclin D and E. Furthermore, a critical role is played by cdk-cyclin complexes inhibitor such as p21 and p27 [80]. Malik and colleagues identified in the modulation of cdk the main mechanism involved in the proapoptotic and antiproliferative potential of pomegranate [81]. In particular, the pomegranate extract (10–100 μg/mL), obtained from the squeeze of the peeled edible portion of the fruit in 70% acetone/30% distilled water, inhibited PC3 growth through a block in the G1 phase, which was evoked by the modulation of regulatory molecules involved in cell-cycle progression and, in particular, in the G1-S transition. Pomegranate fruit extract actually downregulated cyclins D1, D2, E, cdk2, cdk4, and cdk6 and upregulated p21 and p27 [81, 82]. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis by pomegranate in PC3 cells was associated with an increased expression of cleaved PARP and Bax and the inhibition of Bcl-2 [81].

Wang and colleagues reported the ability of pomegranate extract (POM Wonderful, Los Angeles, CA, USA), a standardized pomegranate extract containing 37–40% punicalagin and 3.4% free ellagic acid, to induce a potent in vitro cytotoxic effect on metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines such as C4-2 (IC50 = 42 μg/mL), PC3 (IC50 = 78 μg/mL), and ARCaPM (IC50 = 161 μg/mL) [83].

The inhibitor-of-apoptosis family member surviving is highly expressed in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell death, tumor progression, and chemotherapy resistance. In prostate cancer, survivin is frequently overexpressed and associated with poor clinical outcome and resistance to hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Based on these pieces of evidence, survivin represents an innovative and promising target for the treatment of prostate cancer [84]. Pomegranate extract (35–150 μg/mL) has been shown to reduce survivin protein and gene expression and modulate its survivin pathway in prostate cancer cells (C4-2, PC3, ARCaPM). STAT3 is an inducer of survivin gene expression. Pomegranate extract actually inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation at Ser727, thus leading to the inactivation of STAT3-dependent transcription of survivin. Furthermore, pomegranate extract (i.p. 60 mg/kg; 3 times/week for 12 weeks) induced apoptosis, retarded cell growth, inhibited survivin, and increased the efficacy of docetaxel (5 mg/kg once a week) in prostate cancer cell-transplanted BALB/c nu/nu mice [83].

Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by pomegranate was also reported in immunodepressed mice subcutaneously or orthotopically transplanted with human androgen-dependent CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of pomegranate fruit extract (0.1% and 0.2%, w/v) in drinking fluid to athymic nude mice implanted with androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells (CWR22Rv1) resulted in a significant inhibition in tumor growth concomitant with a significant reduction in secretion of PSA in the serum. As an example, 8 days after cell inoculation, solid tumors were observed in animals receiving water as a drinking fluid. This latency period was prolonged to 11–14 days in animals receiving pomegranate fruit extract. The highest inhibitory effects were observed in animals receiving 0.2% pomegranate fruit extract [81]. Likewise, pomegranate extract (0.8 mg/mouse; ca. 10 times the dose administered to a 70 kg man) induced the same inhibitory effect on androgen-dependent LAPC4 cells implanted in severe combined immunodeficient mice (SCID) [14]. When implanted subcutaneously in murine models, LAPC4 cells produce androgen-dependent tumors; after mouse castration, these cells regrow losing their dependence from androgens [76]. To better predict the effect of pomegranate extract in the clinical response to androgen deprivation caused by castration, Rettig and colleagues used a LAPC4 xenograft model. The authors demonstrated that pomegranate extract is able to delay the growth of LAPC4 androgen-independent tumor through the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell proliferation [85]. NF-κB pathway is one of the main inflammatory signaling pathways involved in cancer development. The constitutive activation of NF-κB pathway is commonly observed in primary prostate cancer and constitutes a risk factor for the development of relapse after radical prostatectomy [86, 87]. NF-κB modulates the transcription of several genes involved in the apoptotic and proliferation process. Rettig and colleagues identified in the inhibition of NF-κB a critical event involved in the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation by pomegranate extract in LCAP4 cells [85].

The inhibition of prostate cancer growth was confirmed in a very recent study by using the murine transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The TRAMP model is widely used in classical chemoprevention protocols since closely mirrors the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer. In a very recent study [88], TRAMP mice received 0.1 and 0.2% pomegranate fruit extract, equivalent to 250 and 500 mL of pomegranate juice, in drinking water, starting at 6 weeks and examined at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of age. Pomegranate fruit extract supplementation significantly inhibited the development of advanced prostate cancer and its metastasis and doubling the overall survival time. As an example, in water-fed group, 100% mice developed palpable tumors by 20 weeks compared with only 70 and 50% recorded at 34 weeks in the 0.1% and 0.2% pomegranate fruit extract-supplemented mice, respectively. 0.1 and 0.2% pomegranate fruit extract supplementation increased median life expectancy of 30 and 49 weeks, respectively, compared with median survival of 43 weeks recorded in water-fed mice. Of note, in tumors and prostate tissues, supplementation with pomegranate fruit extract resulted in a significant inhibition of mTOR pathway, a master switch of cellular catabolism and anabolism, and thereby a critical regulator of cell growth and proliferation [89].

IGF-I is upregulated in prostate cancer, where it represents a potent mitogen and prosurvival factor and an epidemiologically risk factor for the development of prostate cancer. IGF-I is regulated by 6 different binding proteins (IGFBP). IGFBP-3 is the most abundant in serum and possesses the ability to inhibit IGF-I and stimulate the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell growth [90]. Pomegranate extract (10 μg/mL) in association with IGFBP-3 (1 μg/mL) synergistically induced apoptosis and additively reduced cell proliferation in LNAP4 through the suppression of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and the increased phosphorylation of JNK [91].

Proof of the antitumor effect of pomegranate on prostate cancer cells have been reported also for some single components of pomegranate. Ellagic acid and urolithin A induced cell-growth inhibition and apoptosis in DU145 and PC3 cells [92].

Hypoxia exerts a key role in the induction of angiogenesis in cancer mainly through the regulation of HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1α). Pomegranate extract (2.5 μg/mL) exhibited antiangiogenic activity in hypoxic conditions. Both in human prostate cancer cell (LNCaP) and in HUVEC, an inhibition of cell proliferation was observed. VEGF and HIF-1α protein levels became downregulated in hypoxic conditions and this observation supports a direct effect against angiogenesis of pomegranate extract [93]. In SCID mice injected subcutaneously with human prostate cancer cells (LAPC4), pomegranate extract was orally administered (0.8 mg pomegranate extract dissolved in 0.05 mL PBS for 5 days per week). After 4 weeks of treatment, a decrease in tumor growth, microvessel density, HIF-1α and VEGF expression have been found. Pomegranate extract decreased HIF-1α expression, which induced VEGF peptide level downregulation, as already shown in the in vitro model. A decreased tumor vessel density and a decreased prostate cancer xenograft size compared to vehicle treatment have been observed [93]. Thus, the antiangiogenic effect can contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth induced by pomegranate extract treatment.

Furthermore, based on the well-known role of inflammation in various types of cancer and the codependence between angiogenesis and inflammation [94], the anti-inflammatory effects of ellagitannins, such as the inhibition of NF-κB and COX-2 [95], can be involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis. A proteomic study exploring the effect of pomegranate fruit juice (7.5 mg/mL) on prostate cancer cells (DU145) identified other targets potentially involved in the antiangiogenic activity of pomegranate. Lee and coworkers observed a significant downregulation of prolidase gene expression [96]. Prolidase can induce the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF and is, therefore, involved in the angiogenic process. Taken together, these observations suggest that the inhibition of prolidase might contribute to the inhibition of angiogenesis and invasion mediated by pomegranate extracts.

Evidence on the antiangiogenic effect of pomegranate is strengthened by the activity of single compounds present in pomegranate, such as ellagic acid. Indeed, ellagic acid (10 μM) has been shown to inhibit the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor in muscle cells with consequent inhibition of the signaling of these receptors, including angiogenesis [97].

Cell invasion and migration represent two key steps for tumor metastasization process. Several studies have found the antimetastatic and anti-invasive potential of pomegranate and its polyphenols. Inhibition of proinflammatory chemokines, chemotaxis, and arachidonic acid and hyaluronan metabolism represent some of the main mechanisms modulated by pomegranate treatment in breast and prostate cancer cells.

A marked inhibition of cell invasion induced by pomegranate was reported by several groups in breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines, through the evaluation of cell passage across a Matrigel membrane. An anti-invasive effect was evoked in PC3 cells by pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols and pomegranate pericarp polyphenols [79], and an increased effect was reported when these pomegranate derivatives were used in association (equally combined with a total concentration of 3 μg/mL) [98]. Notably, ellagic acid (20 and 50 μM) showed the ability to induce a reduction of PC3 invasion and migration.

Arachidonic acid turnover plays a pivotal role in the process of cancer cell survival and invasiveness [99]. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) induces the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and COX metabolizes arachidonic acid in prostaglandins and thromboxanes. PEG2 represents one of the most important metabolites of arachidonic acid. Several studies attributed to PEG2 the ability to promote cancer cell survival and invasion via PI3K/AKT pathway activation [100]. In prostate cancer, arachidonic acid turnover is highly increased (10 times compared to healthy cells), and the concentration of cytosolic PLA2 is increased too [101]. Lansky and colleagues associated the anti-invasive effect expressed by fermented juice and pericarp polyphenols (alone and in association) to their ability to modulate the arachidonic acid pathway. In particular, they reduced the PLA2 mRNA expression in PC3 cells (50% by fermented juice and pericarp polyphenols and 80% by their combination, resp., compared to the control) [98]. Moreover, Lansky et al. reported an inhibition of PC3 invasion induced by isolated pomegranate compounds, alone and in combination (at same gross dosage 4 μg/mL), including ellagic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, and punicic acid [102].

Another important factor involved in the antimetastatic effect of pomegranate is its ability to modulate the hyaluronan metabolism. Hyaluronan, an anionic nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan overexpressed in many tumors, plays a crucial role in tumor progression, supporting cell migration, invasion, and metastasis [103]. Hyaluronan exerts its tumor promoting activity by binding to cell-surface receptor, in particular the hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR). This interaction promotes the transduction of many intracellular signals leading to a series of cellular responses, such as protein kinase C, focal adhesion kinase, MAPK, PI3K, tyrosine kinases, RAS, and NF-κB production [104]. A gene expression analysis performed on PC3 cells treated with pomegranate juice and some of its components including luteolin, ellagic acid, and punicic acid (alone and in combination) revealed their ability to downregulate the expression of HMMR [82, 105]. Since the same pomegranate products are responsible for the inhibition of invasion in the same in vitro model, this poses the modulation of HMMR and in general of hyaluronan signaling pathway as a crucial mechanism in the inhibition of cancer progression evoked by pomegranate.

Chemokines are small proinflammatory chemoattractant cytokines and represent the main regulators of cell trafficking and adhesion [106]. In particular, the chemokine CXCL12, known as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1α), binds primarily to the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is responsible for the regulation of many intracellular signals involved in several pathways such as chemotaxis, cell survival and/or proliferation, increase in intracellular calcium, and gene transcription. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis plays a critical role in tumor progression, in particular in the angiogenesis, metastasis, and survival processes [107]. Wang and colleagues reported that pomegranate juice and its constituents were able to inhibit chemotaxis acting on CXCL12 in different hormone-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP) [82, 105]. Furthermore, the inhibition of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis was confirmed by the evaluation of the effect of luteolin, punicic acid, and ellagic acid combination (i.p., 64 μg/component/day) on the formation of metastasis and the expression of CXCR4 on luciferase expressing human prostate cancer cells (PC-3M-luc) implanted in SCID mice. The combination completely inhibited the formation of metastasis and significantly decreased CXCR4 protein levels. Moreover, the combination induced a downregulation of proteins involved in the CXCR4 downstream signaling (Gα13, PI3K, and p-AKT) [108]. A modulation of chemotaxis toward SDF1α, a chemokine attracting breast cancer cells to the bone, by pomegranate juice (1%) and the combination of luteolin, punicic acid, and ellagic acid (2 and 4 μg/mL), was reported also in ER+ and ER− breast cancer cells by Rocha and colleagues, associated with inhibition of cell growth and migration and induction of cell adhesion [109].

Other effects induced by pomegranate that strengthen the correlation between this fruit and the inhibition of tumor progression were identified in its ability to inhibit cancer cell migration and enhance adhesion, two crucial cellular processes for cancer metastasis. In particular, pomegranate juice and a combination of luteolin, punicic acid, and ellagic acid reduced cell migration through the downregulation of several genes such as type I collagen, tenascin C, and chimerin 1 in prostatic cancer cells (PC3) [82], HMMR, collagen type I alpha1 (COL1A1), anillin (ANLN), and nexilin (NEXN) in breast cancer cells (MCF7) [109]. On the other hand, pomegranate juice and the combination upregulated genes involved in cell adhesion, in particular E-cadherin in PC3 cells, claudin 1 (CLDN1) in MCF7 cells, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C (MARCKS) in both tumor models [82, 109].

Furthermore, pomegranate juice induced upregulation of anti-invasive miRNAs including miR-335 (regulating COL1A1), miR-205, miR-200, and miR-126 and downregulated proinvasive miRNAs such as miR-21 (regulating MARCKS) and miR-373 in DU145 cells [82].

On the whole, the above reports unequivocally suggest the potential role of pomegranate in prostate cancer treatment. In this light, the ability of ellagitannins, representing the most abundant polyphenols present in pomegranate juice, and their bioactive metabolites (i.e., urolithin A) to concentrate in mouse prostate tissue after intraperitoneal administration [14] and in the human prostate gland upon consumption of pomegranate juice or extract [110, 111] would represent per se a relevant phenomenon in a therapeutic setting and warrants future human tissue bioavailability studies and clinical studies in men with prostate cancer.  

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So, maybe my decision to start taking one 250 mg capsule of Pomegranate Extract per day back in 2006 when my PSA started going up, after radical prostatectomy and radiation, has been helpful? I also started taking one 500 mg capsule of Turmeric Curcumin in 2006. I am still taking both. What do you think about Turmeric Curcumin? I get both at GNC stores.


Turneric itself has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, so I don't discount it, but researchers say that extracted curcumin has poor bioavailability.  Life Extension's Super Bio-Curcumin claims to be "Up to 7 times more absorbable than conventional curcumin supplements".  Not very impressive.

I use Longvida (developed at UCLA), based on this 2015 paper:

"This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans."

NOW markets it as CurcuBrain:

Here's something on Longvida & inflammation in humans:



Many thanks! Thank you for your in depth research and knowledge! And for dumbing it down for me😄


I can only report my personal experience, and I have concluded that it was a waste of my money for continuing as long as I did.  People may have more luck if purchasing their own pomegranates and making use of the core of the product in getting the nutrients that may prove to help.  But I only make that suggestion with no experience.  I am pretty sure there are papers on the internet that explain how to core out and make use of the innards of the pomegranate.  Please take special note that the intake of pomegranate (and if purchasing as liquid or extract) I would recommend extract to avoid sugar intake) may prove beneficial to others.  Many papers are out there claiming this benefit, so please do not take my experience as going to be yours.


Research on supplements is often confusing and sometimes contrary.  There seems to be times that a supplement is in vogue and then it proves to have a negative effect and then a positive again, etc.   The best example is selenium.  As far as pomegranate, I doubt it can have a negative effect other than the sugar in the juice, so despite Chuck's and my personal lack of a positive result it isn't necessarily a bad idea to give it a try.  However, I would consider the extract as opposed to the sugary juice.


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