Naviaux began the paper touting the advantages he believes metabolomics brings for the analysis and treatment of complex diseases. At the most basic level there’s our genes and the environment and not much else. Throw these two together and you get metabolism and metabolites – the byproducts of cellular function. Measuring these metabolites gives you an snapshot of the cells physiology. Naviaux believes studying the metabolic by-products of our cells provides more biologically relevant information than any other approach and is more cost-effective as well.