Fibromyalgia Action UK
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Appealing to the Upper Tribunal against a First-tier Tribunal decision. Go get em Tiger!

Imagine you have to appeal to UT based on an "error of law", see if you can figure out what an error of law is. Does anyone even know what the law is?

Below is some info I have copied from a website which should help you to do this. Get practicing because you may have to do it for real soon.

1. The Upper Tribunal

The Upper Tribunal is part of the Administrative Appeals Chamber within the Ministry of Justice and it decides appeals from decisions of the FTT in social security, tax credits, child trust fund, child support maintenance, housing benefit and council tax benefit cases. All tribunals are chaired by judges.

The name Upper Tribunal applies in Great Britain while in Northern Ireland the UT and the UT judges are known as the Commissioners. The UT is independent of the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) and local authorities. UT decisions (and Commissioners decisions as they were known up to 2008) set legal precedent: their interpretation of the law and their reasoning must be followed by FTTs and decision-makers.

The only ground for appealing to the UT against the FTT decision is that the FTT has made an 'error of law'. Both the benefit claimant and the decision-maker can appeal to the UT.

Outcomes of an appeal to the Upper Tribunal

The UT can do any of the following:

if it finds that a FTT decision is wrong in law it can give the decision that the FTT should have given - if it can do so without making fresh or further findings of fact; or

it can make fresh or further findings of fact, and then give a decision; or

if there aren't enough findings of fact, and it doesn't make new findings, it can refer the case to a new FTT. It may give directions to the new tribunal to make sure the error of law is not repeated.

There is a quicker procedure: if both you and the decision-maker agree on an outcome, the UT can set aside the FTT's decision by consent.

The appeal process can take several months and may not be successful. Always think about making a fresh claim if the FTT refused benefit, or asking for a supersession if it awarded benefit at a lower rate than expected.

2. The FTT’s decision

At the end of most FTT hearings, the judge hands a 'summary notice' of the FTT’s decision to both parties. If the appeal was decided on paper without a hearing, or the FTT cannot come to a decision immediately, the summary notice is posted to both parties as soon as practicable.

Because the summary decision only states the FTT’s decision in brief, you are not allowed to appeal to the UT without first obtaining the FTT’s 'statement of reasons' - except in exceptional circumstances, for example where the Court and Tribunal Service (CTS) cannot produce a statement of reasons.

You must ask for the statement of reasons in writing within one month of the summary notice being given or posted - although the FTT has power to extend this.

The record of proceedings

When you receive the statement of reasons you should also receive the FTT’s 'record of proceedings', which are the FTT’s notes of what happened during the hearing. These can help establish grounds for appeal. If you do not receive the record ask the CTS to send it to you.

3. Asking the FTT for leave to appeal

To appeal to the UT you must first ask the FTT itself for leave (permission) to appeal.

The application for leave must be received by the CTS within one month of the date that the FTT’s statement of reasons was posted to you.

Write a letter stating why you think the decision was legally wrong and what result you seek. Head it 'Application for permission to appeal to the Upper Tribunal'. Make a copy, and send it to the clerk to the tribunal with copies of the tribunal's decision notice and its statement of reasons.

If there is no statement of reasons, the tribunal has discretion to treat the application as a request for one. An application can only be allowed without a statement of reasons if the tribunal thinks it is in the interests of justice to do so.

Reviewing the decision

On receiving your application for permission to appeal, the FTT can review its decision. In particular, the FTT can:

correct an accidental error in the decision;

amend the reasons for the decision; or

set aside the decision.

A tribunal may treat an application for a decision to be corrected, set aside or reviewed, or for permission to appeal against a decision, as an application for any other of these outcomes.

The tribunal must write to ask each party if it has any comments before it changes its decision following a review. If it sets aside the decision, it must make a new decision or order a rehearing.

You must be sent a notification of any new or amended decision. If you think that the new or amended decision contains an error of law, you have one month from the date that the notification is sent to ask again for permission to appeal to the Upper Tribunal.

If the FTT sets aside its decision

If the FTT sets aside its decision, a new FTT made up of different members is arranged that will hear the appeal afresh.

If the FTT grants leave to appeal

When the FTT sends you written notice granting leave to appeal, you must give written notice of appeal to the UT on form UT1 within one month. Form UT1 is sent with the FTT notice and is on the website (see 4 below).

If the FTT refuses leave to appeal

When the FTT sends you written notice refusing leave to appeal, you can apply direct to the UT for leave to appeal within one month on form UT1 (see 4 below).

4. Asking the UT for leave to appeal

Form UT1 (see above) asks for your main grounds for appeal and you can either set them out again or attach your application for leave to the FTT and refer to it. You can give additional grounds if you wish.

If the UT grants leave to appeal, you will receive a written notice telling you this. Your appeal then moves to the next stage of the process: see 5 After leave is granted below.

If the UT refuses leave to appeal you cannot normally appeal again - but see 11. Further appeal below.

Along with your form UT1, you must send:

a copy of the FTT decision notice

a copy of the FTT written statement of reasons

the FTT letter granting or refusing permission to appeal

a copy of any funding notice or legal aid certificate (see 12. Legal Aid below),

a copy of any Appointment to Act (if someone is acting on your behalf).

Note: Form UT1 is for the use of claimants. Form UT2 is for the use of DWP decision-makers. The forms are at

5. After leave is granted

You will be given a hearing date. Whether it will be an oral hearing depends on whether you ask for one or the DWP decision-maker asks for one or the UT judge requires one. If not, the appeal is decided on the paperwork alone - and most of them are. As the UT has only limited power to investigate the facts, no new evidence needs to be heard or examined. It is usually possible for the UT to determine whether a legal error has occurred by considering written arguments alone.

Appeals that are particularly complex or could establish an important legal precedent can be decided at an oral hearing.

6. Paper appeals

The UT obtains copies of the appeal papers from the Courts and Tribunal Service. The party who did not appeal is sent a copy of the application for leave and asked to make a submission within a set time. A copy of this submission is sent to the party who appealed. Further submissions are sent between parties until neither has further comment. The appeal is then put before a UT judge to be decided on the papers.

The UT judge who will decide the appeal can order the parties to make further submissions as s/he thinks necessary.

Once the UT has enough information, it will make a decision and send a written copy of that decision to the parties.

7. Oral hearings

If the UT agrees to (or orders) an oral hearing, both parties are asked to submit skeleton arguments in advance. The judge (or in complex cases, a tribunal of three judges) who will decide the appeal will examine the arguments and may ask for further submissions.

At the hearing each party is asked in turn to argue their case, with the appellant (the party that made the appeal) going first. The judge can ask questions on any point at any time. At the end each party sums up their case.

The UT will rarely announce its decision at the end of the hearing, but will usually reserve judgment and send each party a written decision.

8. Grounds for appeal

There is only one ground of appeal to the UT, which is that the FTT made an 'error of law'. This term covers a wider range of errors than many people first imagine. The FTT's statement of reasons must show that it:

applied the law correctly

made correct factual findings

gave adequate reasons for its decision

made the decision in the correct way

obeyed the rules of natural justice

A failure to do any of these can constitute an error of law.

Much case law, from both the UT and the higher courts, concerns errors of law in FTT decisions, including the following:

I. applying the wrong law – for example where the FTT used the wrong legislation, misunderstood the legislation or overlooked relevant case law.

II. making incorrect factual findings – To make a decision the FTT must decide what the facts are and not take into account irrelevant facts.

III. giving inadequate reasons – The FTT must explain its decision: it must explain how the evidence established the facts and why the facts made it apply the law in the way it did.

IV. making a decision that is not supported by the evidence – for example where the FTT ignored or overlooked evidence, misinterpreted evidence, took into account irrelevant evidence or made a decision that does follow logically from the evidence.

V. making a decision that is ‘perverse’ – where the FTT acted irrationally and in a way that no reasonable FTT, given the relevant law and the evidence before it and the findings of fact, could have come to the decision that it did.

VI. breach of ‘the rules natural justice – This includes failing to follow FTT procedure, for example failing to give parties 14 days’ notice of an oral appeal hearing or failing to inform parties that it intends to take into account a matter not addressed in the appeal papers or during the hearing. It also includes failure to follow the procedural rules for all judicial process, for example bias or not allowing a party to speak.

9. Finding grounds for an appeal

Some appeals to FTTs are made solely because the claimant disagrees with the DWP’s interpretation of the law and the FTT decides whose interpretation it prefers. In these appeals identifying the potential error of law can be relatively straightforward – the legal argument that failed before the FTT is restated to the UT, but now also addresses any alternative interpretation that arose during the course of the appeal.

Most appeals however are not primarily about bare legal interpretation. In these cases, identifying potential errors of law involves a careful study of the law, the evidence (including oral evidence from the hearing), the FTT statement of reasons and how the hearing was conducted.

The FTT statement of reasons must adequately explain how it reached its decision. An oft-quoted Commissioners’ decision states that:

“the minimum requirement must at least be that the claimant looking at the decision should be able to discern on the face of it why the evidence has failed to satisfy the authority.” (R(A)1/72).

Potentially, anything less is an error of law.

An ideal FTT statement of reasons will:

state the legislation that applies to the question under appeal and establish whether case law helps its interpretation. If case law is contradictory, the FTT will explain why it chose to follow a particular case – for instance it may fit the facts of this appeal more closely;

state the relevant facts of the case. It will say what evidence it used to establish the facts;

include a discussion of the evidence. If evidence is contradictory it will explain why it thought one set of evidence more credible than another;

explain why applying the law to the facts it found produced the outcome stated in the decision.

Compare the FTT’s reasons with the case papers, its record of proceedings and your own notes or memory of what happened in the FTT. Do the reasons adequately explain how the FTT came to its decision? If not, what is missing? Try to express anything that is missing in terms of grounds I to VI above – if you can do so, you may have established an error of law that is grounds for an appeal.

10 Setting out grounds for appeal

There is no set structure for setting out your grounds for appeal. The key is to set out your grounds logically, explaining clearly why you think the FTT’s decision is defective. Make sure your request for leave contains your name and address, date of birth, national insurance number and appeal reference number.

You can appeal to the UT on more than one ground. If you the think that the decision has more than one legal error, set out each error separately under its own heading.

Number your pages and paragraphs so that you, the other party and the UT can refer to your arguments quickly and easily.

11. Further appeal

If the UT refuses leave to appeal you may

apply to the Upper Tribunal for a decision on an appeal to be set aside on certain limited procedural grounds, or

appeal to the Court of Appeal against the decision of Upper Tribunal.

For more information see the website.

12. Legal aid and legal costs at tribunals

It is possible to get legal aid for Upper Tribunal hearings. (Legal aid helps people pay for the cost of getting legal advice. You must meet certain conditions to be eligible for legal aid, including being on a low income.) From 1 April 2013 you will not be able to get legal aid for most cases about welfare benefits, nor for most cases about employment, housing and debt, but there are important exceptions. For welfare benefits, the exceptions include appeals in the Upper Tribunal and higher courts. For more information about this see our website page on the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012.

You won’t have to pay any costs or fees when you appeal to the Upper Tribunal. Costs or fees apply from July 2013 in Employment Tribunals but they are quite separate from the Administrative Appeals Chamber where the Upper Tribunal belongs.

13 The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA)

The Human Rights Act (HRA) and the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) set out various rights that may give you grounds for appeal. An example is Article 6 - The Right to a Fair Trial. This gives you the right to an independent and impartial hearing of your case. There is more information in Factsheet F1 - human rights act.

14. Judicial review

Judicial review is a type of court proceeding in which a judge looks at the lawfulness of a decision or action made by a public body, such as a tribunal. In other words, judicial reviews look at the way in which a decision has been made, rather than the rights and wrongs of the conclusion reached. It is possible to challenge a FTT decision by seeking a judicial review in the UT (but not if you have a right of appeal to the UT anyway).We recommend that you seek specialist advice about judicial review because there are strict time limits and you can be liable for legal costs and there are differences between England and Wales and Scotland and Northern Ireland.

11 Replies

Gosh that's alot to understand but great info for anyone having problems hope it helps gentle hugs KEZA x


Wow, you have worked hard on that one. I've read through what you've put and I'm more convinced now that I could have a right to appeal to the UT after getting my statement of reasons. I just don't know if I have the energy. In the meantime I'm starting again and putting in a new ESA application. Oh how I hate filling in forms!


I hope you can Deefer, the problem is you have to show "errors of law" to win an appeal at UT. I know someone who applied for SOR to continue her appeal. No actual law was quoted in the SOR, just judges opinion based on the facts as presented by the appellant. The judge picked holes in the defendants statements and refused the appeal on that basis alone.

Which means if you did not appeal to FTT on a point of law to begin with, the judge can take your statements and twist them any way s/he likes. No law is needed to refuse your appeal.


This is how i won. Using the " In pain before, during and after case law to overule there decision as a mistake in law. The boards think they can do as they wish, educate yourself and know your rights and they back down and seem to not bother with those who have prev made there rights known and fought. The govmt rely on people giving up the apeals process.


Hello I have just been reading you post and feel somewhat inspired, I have had my pip appeal refused and due to exhaustion I as ready to quit until I read your post. I have been told about the upper tribunal yet it appears extremely daunting and the appeal has left me with very little hope left. I am wandering if you have any information that may help me as I see you have been successful at the upper tribunal stage. Any little thing may be helpful and greatly appreciated.

1 like

I would really appreciate some tips in how you won your case. I've just been refused at tribunal and now looking to appeal to upper tier. Any help would be gratefully received. 😀


I have a friend whom won a case at tribunal and DWP took it to upper tribunal.The paperwork has thrown me, my observations in reply to the appeal by...Im not sure how to fill this in as it all seems to be based on various case studies. Help please


Hello please can anyone help. Iv been granTed permission to appeal from the upper tribunal. They have sent me a load of paper work. But they are saying iv to make a submission in accordance with the upper tribunal direction.. anyone know what I put or ever had to do this before? Iv got so far on my own with no solicitors or help but I'm now stuck?? I really need to sort this out its been nearly 2 years and it's dragging me down. Iv gone all this time with no income and 3 children. Thank you in advance


Hi - I need help. I have just had a re-hearing of a tier tier 2 ESA upper tribunal hearing, but was not properly represented by my welfare rights officer, nor was it a FAIR hearing under the human rights act and also what is happening is against the disability discrimination act in that the dwp / local government is treating me differently under the ESA rules than I would be treated under the ill-health retirement process. 13 The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA)

You quote - The Human Rights Act (HRA) and the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) set out various rights that may give you grounds for appeal. An example is Article 6 - The Right to a Fair Trial. This gives you the right to an independent and impartial hearing of your case. There is more information in Factsheet F1 - human rights act. WHERE is this factsheet?

And can I have the tier 2 re-heard by an independent and impartial judge / doctor who are not paid by the government?




Thank you for this very helpful post. I've recently gone through a tribunal for PIP and been refused. The judges statement of reasons make no sense and they quote statements from Dr's who were ruling out conditions before diagnising Fibromyalgia. For example PTSD. I've never claimed to be suffering from this, never put it on any claim form but the judge states that I relied upon it at my tribunal! The statement also claims that because I managed to get into the court building ( took 15 minutes and I had to stop and rest 6 times) that I don't quaify for mobility. They also state that the tribunal watched me walk, albeit showing signs of extreme fatigue, pain and discomfort (their words) for 35 minutes I don't have mobility issues. They saw me walk into the court room from the waiting area twice (as they insisted I left the room on a couple of occasions) the distance I had to walk was about 20 feet and they state that 35 minutes is a reasonable time to walk this distance! They also claimed that I was overly negative about my condition, refused to believe that my drugs render me incapable of doing anything and that in their opinion I overstated my disabilities! I am exhausted from fighting the DWP, I'm tired of getting doors shut in my face when I ask for help with this and tired of this condition. This article has given me at least a little hope of taking my appeal further. Thanks 😀



I found this helpful but I didn’t understand one thing?? I am asylum seeker refused by decision from gone office then I appealed to the FTT during the First tier tribunal hearing everything was perfect and my barrister and solicitor was extremely happy then we received a promulgated decision which made us all in shock till now , My lawyer is preparing for permission to appeal to Upper tribunal but after reading your article I am confused honestly as there is a chance that the the FTT can correct or amend the decision?? How that possibly could work ?? Will you please give more details ,??

Many thanks



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