You all have both posted about IL-17 and its relationship to PD. Well IL-17 is also related to Hashimoto's. And Hashimoto's is also related to PD. And frozen shoulder is related to PD and Hashimoto's.
And... IL-17 can be caused by a parasite called Blastocystis hominis. And... this parasite can be killed.
Improving Hashimoto’s thyroiditis by eradicating Blastocystis hominis: Relation to IL-17 Feb 2021 journals.sagepub.com/doi/10...
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disorder that causes significant morbidity. Interleukin (IL)-17 was identified as a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of HT. Blastocystis hominis (BH) is a very common infection and has been shown to be associated with several diseases. Our aim was to determine serum IL-17 level in HT patients with and without BH infection and the effect of eradicating BH in patients with HT.
A prospective cohort study was conducted on 20 HT patients not infected with BH (group I), 20 HT patients infected with BH (group II), and 20 healthy patients (group III). Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and IL-17 were performed by ELISA method and were repeated in group II after 6 weeks of eradication of BH.
Patients with HT showed a significantly higher serum IL-17 compared with controls. IL-17 was significantly higher in HT patients infected with BH compared with HT patients not BH infected (mean 6.93 ± 2.83 pg/ml versus 3.25 ± 1.55 pg/ml, p = 0.003). After BH eradication TSH, anti-TPO, and IL-17 were significantly decreased (mean 14.76 ± 11.11 µIU/ml versus 9.39 ± 7.11 µIU/ml, p < 0.001; mean 308 ± 175.6 IU/ml versus 295.4 ± 167.1 IU/ml, p = 0.006; and mean 6.93 ± 2.83 pg/ml versus 6.45 ± 2.48 pg/ml, p < 0.001), respectively. Multivariate analysis after treating BH infection showed that IL-17 was significantly negatively correlated with FT3 (adjusted p = 0.002) and significantly positively correlated with anti-TPO (adjusted p = 0.045).
Treatment of BH infection ameliorates HT through reduction in IL-17, anti-TPO, and TSH.
Clinical trial registration number: PACTR201909495111649
Blastocystis hominis (BH) is the most common intestinal protozoan isolated in humans. Although this parasite remains asymptomatic in most of the cases, yet it can function as an opportunistic pathogen and cause gastrointestinal disorders in immunocompromised patients. BH infection is associated with various diseases and it has been demonstrated that BH has the ability to modulate immune response.5
Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine IL-17 were identified as major contributing factors in the pathogenesis of HT. Only a few studies addressed the relation between IL-17 and HT. It was interesting to study the level of IL-17 in HT patients with and without BH infection and observe the effect of eradication of BH on IL-17 level and the course of HT.
In group II, BH infection was treated using 500 mg nanazoxid 3 tablets/day for 3 days then clinical examination and laboratory investigations were repeated after 6 weeks of eradication of BH infection.
Results of anti-TPO antibodies showed that it was significantly higher in groups I and II than in the control group (mean 436.6 ± 286.6 IU/ml versus 17.65 ± 5.66 IU/ml and mean 308.0 ± 175.6 IU/ml versus 17.65 ± 5.66 IU/ml, respectively). There was no significant difference in anti-TPO antibodies between groups I and II.
All patients with HT exhibited higher levels of serum IL-17 compared with normal patients. In comparison with the control group, serum IL-17 was significantly higher in patients with HT without BH infection (Group I) (mean 3.25 ± 1.55 pg/ml versus 1.41 ± 0.88 pg/ml, p = 0.002), as well as in patients with HT infected with BH (Group II) (mean 6.93 ± 2.83 pg/ml versus 1.41 ± 0.88 pg/ml, p < 0.001). Moreover, patients with HT who were infected with BH (Group II) showed a significant higher level of serum IL-17 compared with those with HT without BH infection (Group I; mean 6.93 ± 2.83 pg/ml versus 3.25 ± 1.55 pg/ml, p = 0.003).
After treatment of Blastocystis hominis infection:
After treatment of the BH infection, 10 patients in group II reported an improvement in fatigue, while constipation has improved in five patients only, and diarrhea disappeared in all six patients.
In group II, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures remain significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in group II before and after treatment of BH infection.
TSH was significantly decreased after treatment of the BH infection.
In group II, anti-TPO was decreased significantly after treatment of the BH infection.
Also in group II after treatment of the BH infection in patients with HT, serum IL-17 was significantly decreased in comparison with its level before treating the BH infection.
Thus, it was shown in group II that treatment of a BH infection in patients with HT has resulted in a significant reduction in serum TSH, anti-TPO, and IL-17.
In 2015, for the first time in the literature a case report was published showing that treatment of BH infection can prevent the development and further stop progression of HT.
High serum IL-17 level in HT patients infected with BH supports the potential role of BH in the development of HT. Furthermore, BH eradication in patients with HT resulted in a reduction of serum IL-17 and improved thyroid parameters. Hence, treating BH infection can ameliorate HT and even stop its progression. Yet, such a relation is not definitively proven, and our findings can provide the basis for further multifaceted prospective studies with larger sample sizes.
This might be something.