I started today asking "what can I remove from my stack?" And of course, now I am probably adding to my stack: researchgate.net/publicatio...
As close as I can tell, it looks like the dosing was 20 mg dissolved in saline, so I'm guessing they injected it.
Background: The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is complex; it includes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Notably, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may activate inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses in Parkinson's disease. Vinpocetine has been tested as an anti-inflammatory in both animal and in vitro research. Thus, it is important to test whether the anti-inflammatory properties of vinpocetine may have a protective effect in PD patients.
Methods: Eighty-nine Parkinson's disease patients and 42 healthy controls were recruited for this study. All patients were randomly assigned to either the traditional therapy group (T PD group, n = 46) or the vinpocetine group (V PD group, n = 43), in a blinded manner. Both treatments were administered for 14 days.
Results: Administration of vinpocetine reduced mRNA levels of TLR2/4, as well as protein levels of the downstream signalling molecules, MyD88 and NF-κB; moreover, it lowered the expression levels of serum inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and MCP-1. Notably, vinpocetine increased TLR3 mRNA levels, as well as protein levels of the downstream signalling molecules TRIF-β and IRF-3, and serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-8. Furthermore, vinpocetine produced a robust increase in the Mini Mental State Examination score, compared to that achieved by using levodopa therapy.
Conclusion: Vinpocetine treatment may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and alleviate cognitive impairment.
In summary, the present study has uncovered an antiinflammatory role for vinpocetine in the treatment of PD. Vinpocetine regulates TLR2/3/4 mRNA and protein expression; moreover, it modulates downstream signalling proteins
and cytokines. However, there is no stable or clear cause-effect relationship between its anti-inflammatory action and cognitive enhancement. Thus, vinpocetine is a good candidate for future therapy in PD patients.
Also this: Targeting PDE1 for PD October 23, 2018 scienceofparkinsons.com/201...
A drug called Vinpocetine (a phosphodiesterase 1 inhibitor) was the only phosphodiesterase inhibitor that reduced alpha synuclein toxicity. Vinpocetine is a synthetic alkaloid derived from the periwinkle plant. It is synthesised from a molecule called ‘vincamine‘.
Vinpocetine is dirt cheap at SwansonVitamins.com