I have just opened a link (see below) today on over-diagnosis of thyroid cancer... last year or so I commented on the daughter of a relative's friend.. went to her GP with her young child, had the GP notice a very slight bulge on her neck [mother of the child] - yet who had reported no symptoms of anything. Within no time at all she had her thyroid removed, then the biopsy came back as 'inconclusive'... for me that was unbelievable but I absolutely know this to be accurately reported information.
Then we have us hypothyroid_s, often struggling for years for a diagnosis and then strung along on the basis of dreadfully flawed, often inappropriate for some, blood tests: there are several ways in which statistical errors occur and clearly where medics are often so ignorant... or are they? Look at all of the wombs removed [unnecessarily] many years back... several such examples of gung ho medical faux paus certainly exist. Maybe just over zealous - but that too is an error!
Sad state of affairs: statistically there is a Type I and a Type II Error; respectively, to Hang the Innocent Man and to Let the Guilty Man Go Free, ensuring there are problems for the individual and for populations whichever way