Both NF-κB and c-Jun/AP-1 involved in anti-β2GPI/β2GPI-induced tissue factor expression in monocytes.
Our previous data has demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its signalling pathway can contribute to anti-β2-glycoprotein I/β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI/β2GPI) -induced tissue factor (TF) expression in human blood monocytes and acute monocytic leukaemia cell line THP-1. However, its downstream nuclear transcription factors have not been well explored. In the current study, we further investigated whether nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP-1) were activated and their roles in anti-β2GPI/β2GPI complex stimulating TF expression. The results showed that treatment of the cells with anti-β2GPI (10μg/ml)/β2GPI (100 mg/ml) complex could markedly increase the levels of phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB p65) and c-Jun/AP-1 (p-c-Jun), as well as TF expression. Both NF-κB inhibitor PDTC (20 μM) and AP-1 inhibitor curcumin (25 mM) could attenuate TF expression induced by anti-β2GPI/β2GPI or APS-IgG/β2GPI complex. Combination of any two inhibitors of MAPKs (SB203580/U0126 or SB203580/SP600125 or U0126/SP600125) could decrease activation of NF-κB. SB203580/SP600125 or U0126/SP600125, but not SB203580/U0126, could reduce the phosphorylation of c-Jun/AP-1. Neither NF-κB nor c-Jun/AP-1 activation caused by anti-β2GPI/β2GPI complex could be affected by TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242. In conclusion, our results indicate that both NF-κB and c-Jun/AP-1 can be activated and play important roles in the process of anti-β2GPI/β2GPI-induced TF expression in monocytes, thereby contributing to the pathological processes of antiphospholipid syndrome.
The take away here is that of the two observed pathways that promote APA antibodies, the study was using curcumin as an inhibitor for one of them. "Both NF-κB inhibitor PDTC (20 μM) and AP-1 inhibitor curcumin (25 mM) could attenuate TF expression induced by anti-β2GPI/β2GPI or APS-IgG/β2GPI complex. "
Add that to the list. Ok, so far we have vitamin D, and curcumin. I'll start another post that focuses on a hughes autoimmine supplement protocol.