.... Studies are clearly needed to establish optimum iron stores in both men and women in the context of not only diabetes incidence, progression and complications, but also for all inflammation-related chronic diseases, in particular those associated with aging. Furthermore, large clinical studies are needed to examine the impact of lowering iron stores on the incidence of clinical manifestations of the complications of diabetes, not just markers of glucose metabolism. Can aggressive iron stores reduction, perhaps with severe carbohydrate restriction, cure type 2 diabetes, i.e. eliminate need for any medication? This question should have high priority. There are health issues associated with iron where one of the potentially effective interventions, blood donation, is free with almost no side effects. Iron stores as measured by ferritin can be dramatically lowered in most individuals without inducing anemia.