Dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a pilot study in European- and African-American obese

Dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a pilot study in European- and African-American obese women.

Pointer SD1, Rickstrew J2, Slaughter JC3, Vaezi MF1, Silver HJ4.

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Although obesity rates are higher in African-American than European-American women, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its comorbidities are more prevalent in European-American women. A common denominator for increased adiposity, and consequent insulin resistance, is excess dietary macronutrient intake - which may promote greater prevalence and severity of GERD in women.


To investigate whether GERD is more robustly associated with dietary carbohydrate intake, particularly dietary simple carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance in European-American women.


About 144 obese women were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after consuming a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. GERD diagnosis and medication usage was confirmed in medical records with symptoms and medications assessed weekly.


About 33.3% (N = 33) of European-American and 20.0% (N = 9) of African-American women had GERD at baseline. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), sugars (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), glycaemic load (r = 0.34, P = 0.001) and HOMAIR (r = 0.30, P = 0.004) were associated with GERD, but only in European-American women. In response to high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, reduced intake of sugars was associated with reduced insulin resistance. By the end of diet week 10, all GERD symptoms and medication usage had resolved in all women.


GERD symptoms and medication usage was more prevalent in European-American women, for whom the relationships between dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and GERD were most significant. Nevertheless, high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet benefited all women with regard to reducing GERD symptoms and frequency of medication use.

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

9 Replies

  • Butter without Bread is not considered healthy by some and when the damage occurs blame the butter and not the toxic bread.

  • Having butter without the toxic bread is unimaginable by some

  • Yes and counting carbs is considered ridiculous by such guys and gals. India there's an attitude called "Chalta Hai" and the wake up call in that case comes when it's already quite late. Try and convince before that stage and people start dishing out certificates of being a hardliner.

  • It's our health

    We have to decide for ourselves

  • We eat home made healthy food,not junk food,and are least concerned with these articles,sheer wastage of time.

  • Better to ignore then If it's not relevant to you .

    I don't read all posts ot respond to many which I believe is not relevant to me

  • Hi shashikantiyengarji

    Is consumption of Stevia safe for Diabetics 2

  • Yes

    Some reports have shown that it does not spike insulin level after ingestion

    I take stieva drops in my morning coffee

    Afternoon tea I take it sugarless and also no stevia