Parkinson's Movement

Disease or syndrome

Theory of brain disease faces challenge, most PD patients have additional, non-motor symptoms, and is coming to be understood as a much broader disease.

Current theorys see Parkinson’s as degeneration of the substantia nigra .The hypothesis Braak and colleagues research pathology would indicate that it advances from the peripheral nervous system to the brain stem in a staging system first described by Braak in 2003

Chronic constipation, loss of smell, and REM sleep disorders often occur before the motor symptoms

One of the attractive features of Braak’s staging scheme is that the areas of the nervous system littered with Lewy bodies at the earliest stages of disease could account for these non-motor symptoms.

The staging system, draws attention to the damage in other transmitter systems—in other words, apart from and before the nigrostriatal system. In addition, it can serve as a framework for relating the pathology in other parts of the nervous system (gastrointestinal tract, spinal cord, and so on) to that in the brain.

Read on link below

5 Replies



Your information about Braak's staging system theory is interesting. To the layman's mind it would seem that a person who has lost his/her sense of smell could now be linked to Parkinson's, sometimes many years before the onset of motor symptoms. The question then though, is "Would you want to know"?


I would want to know if there was something I could do--I'm so glad I took those ballroom dancing classes. My muscles are trained to move in different ways. I could have altered my diet. I could have avoided unnecessary stress and slept more. Yes.


My worst symptoms are in my gut. If I didn't have that I could manage motor symptoms. I asked my neuro (a leading research doctor ) if anyone is doing research in GI and PD and he said no! Come on medical community, listen to us!


Hi Patv The gut and its importance is becoming significant.We have learned much about the brain but neglected the bigger picture. Hope­full and onwards in 2012

Help for Parkinson’s patients

Publi­shed on Friday 26 February 2010 17:34

A daily cock­tail of food addi­tives can lead to dramatic impro­ve­ments for people with Parkinson’s Disease, a retired dentist believes.

Andrew Carmi­chael, 68, who lives in Ashton, Preston, has been resear­ching the theory that gut health and brain health are connected.

Andrew, who has a broad medical back­ground, has disco­vered the Parkinson’s Imman of the Preston branch of the Parkinson’s Society between 2003 and 2008, has been trial­ling the PIP mix on a number of patients.

The father-??of-??five and grandfather-??of-??seven said: « There are

drugs which do improve Parkinson’s, but a lot of them have side effects so I looked at a non-??drug solu­tion to slow down some of the problems.

« The Univer­sity of Central Lanca­shire has been extre­mely helpful in allo­wing me to use their library and Internet research faci­li­ties to carry out my research into this way of dealing with Parkinson’s Disease. »

Andrew has tested the PIP mix on about 50 patients.

He has seen impro­ve­ments in about 20% of cases and says the changes have been dramatic.

He said: « The patients are effec­ti­vely taking a mixture of food addi­tives such as palmi­toyl ascor­bate, which is accepted as a safe food addi­tive, folic acid, lemon fish oil and a probiotic drink every day.

« The mix is now avai­lable in a single dose.

« The idea is that by impro­ving a person’s diges­tion, you are impro­ving their absorp­tion of nutrients and this reduces inflam­ma­tion in the brain which is one of the causes of Parkinson’s. »

Andrew says that while the PIP mix is not a cure for Parkinson’s Disease, it can lead to consi­de­rable improvements.

He said: « One of the patients who has taken part in the trial is a music teacher who was diag­nosed with Parkinson’s at the age of 42 and had to give up teaching a few years later.

« I met him when he was 52 and he was walking with a stick.

« Since taking part in this programme, he is now back to teaching pupils

stringed instru­ments, can play himself and is back to taking part in compe­ti­tive sports.

« Another patient who has bene­fited from the trial is a 75-??year-??old who three months ago was in a chair and was unable to do almost anything.

« Within two months of taking part in this programme, he was able to go

back to indoor bowling. »

Andrew has funded the research himself and with the help of donors. So far it has cost 6,000.

He is now regis­te­ring the Parkinson’s Impro­ve­ment Programme as a charity so he can apply for research funding.

Anyone wanting more infor­ma­tion can contact Andrew at:

Commentaire — 26 janvier 2012 #

Brain-??gut axis dysregulation

Novel brain-??gut neuro­trans­mitter imaging and func­tional brain imaging show dysre­gu­la­tion of the brain-??gut axis at the peripheral, spinal, and cere­bral levels, all of which contri­bute toward the symp­toms of Gastro Intes­tinal Disor­ders. parti­cu­larly IBS Irri­table bowel syndrome

Past and Present

Since the days of Descartes, there has been a clear deli­nea­tion in Western medi­cine between func­tional and organic condi­tions in the biome­dical model of medicine.Using tradi­tional diag­nostic tech­niques, such as endo­scopy and imaging, IBS were often consi­dered at the func­tional end of the functional-??organic spec­trum. This would neces­sa­rily imply an absence of detec­table struc­tural abnormalities.

In the past 2 decades, there has been a great surge of research on moti­lity, brain imaging, and neuro­trans­mit­ters, which has given us the brain-??gut axis?—?a working formu­la­tion now used ubiqui­tously by all inter­na­tional research groups.The patho­phy­sio­lo­gical unders­tan­ding of the organic aspects of IBS has increased to such a degree that there is some debate whether we can still strictly call it a func­tional disorder.11 The time of Descartes is being chal­lenged, but unfor­tu­na­tely the nega­tive stigma asso­ciated with func­tional condi­tions still lingers in the minds of many clini­cians and patients.

Stress can enable IBS symp­toms. Like­wise, chronic IBS symp­toms can lead to physio­lo­gical effects. In addi­tion, stress aggra­vates moti­lity, lowers pain thre­sholds, and increases gut inflammation.

It is suggested that Patients with severe and symp­toms of IBS may have central dysre­gu­la­tion of their pain regu­la­tory path­ways (central sensitization).16 Because many of these path­ways are acti­vated by the same neuro­trans­mit­ters (eg, sero­tonin, nore­pi­ne­phrine, opiates)


Perhaps the most stri­king ratio­nale for the use of centrally acting treat­ments in recent years is the concept of neuro­plas­ti­city. Anti­de­pres­sants, and possibly psycho­the­rapy, can promote neuro­ge­nesis (ie, the regrowth of neurons) follo­wing the loss of cortical neurons in psychia­tric trauma. Func­tional MRI studies have shown reduced neuron density in cortical brain regions involved in emotional and pain regu­la­tion in patients with pain disor­ders and with IBS. Pain and psycho­lo­gical trauma (and parti­cu­larly the combi­na­tion of both) can be neuro­de­ge­ne­ra­tive?—?much like Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are.

Func­tional GI Disor­ders and Psychiatry

by Claude Botha, MBChB, MRCPsych and Doug Drossman, MD | 15 November 2011

Psychia­tric Times. Vol. 28 No. 11


Commentaire — 2 février 2012


You may also like...