I am struggling to come up with words to introduce this paper. Not because I can't think of anything so say, but because I am so sure that others will have lots to say!
Original Research ARTICLE
Front. Physiol., 16 September 2015 | dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.20...
Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding
Paula B. M. De Andrade1†, Laurence A. Neff2, Miriam K. Strosova3, Denis Arsenijevic1, Ophélie Patthey-Vuadens2,3, Leonardo Scapozza2, Jean-Pierre Montani1, Urs T. Ruegg3, Abdul G. Dulloo1* and Olivier M. Dorchies2,3*
1Department of Medicine, Physiology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
2Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Geneva-Lausanne School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland
3Pharmacology, Geneva-Lausanne School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland
Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat.
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