Good news for those of us that hate needles, or who have family members that do and are reluctant to have vaccinations to protect themselves (and us).
C Raina MacIntyre, Professor of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Head of the School of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Australia; Daniel Salmon, Associate Professor, School of Public Health, Global Disease Epidemiology and Control, Johns Hopkins University and Elizabeth Kpozehouen, Research Assistant , UNSW Australia look at needle free vaccination options that are available now or on the way:
Note that we should not have the nasal spray flu vaccine (also called the live attenuated influenza vaccine), because it is a live vaccine.
Photo: I nearly gave my foot multiple needles by walking on this echidna (spiny ant eater). This Aussie critter lays eggs and suckles its young. It can also very quickly dig down into the soil to escape predators - as if the needle defence wasn't enough!