After reading the title of this posting, you probably thought I was going to tell you how to do it. Unfortunately, I don't know either and I was just hoping to start a conversation in which anyone can pitch in. If we get some useful replies, I'll try to post a summary of them.
One thing I've recommended is looking at the teaching and research hospitals, for example as offered in the US National Cancer Institute's list of designated cancer centers that I keep posting ad nauseum: cancer.gov/research/nci-rol... I think that can be very helpful for finding capable oncologists, but I don't know if it helps with finding good general practitioners, finding local doctors, or taking your particular insurance situation into consideration.
Interviewing doctors to find a good one is of very limited help for people facing immediate problems. If you have to wait a week or a month for an appointment, have to pay a significant copay, and then find that the doc is useless, you've lost time and money. If the doc is not useless but not ideal either, probably the most common case, you've then got to decide how much further to look. If we could line up six doctors in one building and interview them all in one day, that would be great, but it's a pipe dream for hiring doctors.
So, if anyone has some good ideas, or knows the URL of a truly useful web page that discusses it, please share what you've got.