Vitamin K intake and prostate cancer ... - Advanced Prostate...

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Vitamin K intake and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial

pjoshea13 profile image
8 Replies

New study below [1].

The case for having an adequate intake of vitamin K is that it is necessary for bone & arterial health. K is a vitamin, which means that it is an essential nutrient. There is no reason to take more K than that needed for bone heatlth. K2 (menaquinones) is preferred because K1 (phylloquinone) has a very short half-life.

From a PCa perspective, a German study [2] found:

"an inverse association between the intake of menaquinones, but not that of phylloquinone, and prostate cancer."

(Menaquinones are mostly obtained from certain aged cheeses [4]. Unfortunately, PCa studies suggest that dairy should be avoided, but if one must have cheese, Gouda will meet your K2 needs!)

From a recent cell study [3]:

"Our data showed that VK2 significantly inhibited CRPC VCaP cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 48 h treatment in vitro. In addition, VK2 reduced the migration potential of VCaP cells and inhibited anchorage-independent growth of these cells. Our results also showed that VK2 induces apoptosis in VCaP cells. Furthermore, VK2 enforced growth arrest in VCaP cells by activating cellular senescence. Notably, VK2 treatment elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species in VCaP cells. Western blot analysis revealed that VK2 downregulated the expression of androgen receptor, BiP, survivin, while activating caspase-3 and -7, PARP-1 cleavage, p21 and DNA damage response marker, phospho-H2AX in VCaP cells."

In the PLCO study, vitamin K status was assessed from a "Dietary Questionnaire (DQX)"

"The present study does not suggest that vitamin K intake influences the occurrence of total and advanced prostate cancer in the general US population."

The Abstract doesn't specify intake levels of K1 & K2. IMO, the optimal intake of vitamin K ensures the proper transport of calcium into bone & prevents the dumping of calcium into arterial walls. Zero arterial calcification is rare in older U.S. men who rely on diet for vitamin K. It would be nice to know more about the PLCO population.



Vitamin K intake and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial

Margaret Hoyt Michael Reger Andrew Marley Hao Fan Ziyue Liu Jianjun Zhang

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, nqy251,

Published: 09 January 2019 Article history






Vitamin K inhibits prostate cancer cells, and an altered expression of vitamin K–dependent proteins in prostate tumors has been linked to their aggressiveness and progression. However, little is known about the effect of vitamin K intake on prostate cancer in human populations.


We evaluated the associations of dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K-1), menaquinones (vitamin K-2), and total vitamin K with the development of prostate cancer among participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial.


Dietary intake of vitamin K was assessed with the Dietary Questionnaire (DQX) at baseline and the Dietary History Questionnaire (DHQ) at the third anniversary of randomization by using high-performance liquid chromatography–based food-composition data obtained from the USDA and published studies. During a median follow-up of 11.8 y, 2978 cases of prostate cancer (including 490 advanced cases) were identified from the 28,356 men who completed DQX. Similarly, 2973 cases of prostate cancer (including 647 advanced cases) were documented from the 48,090 men who completed DHQ. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate prostate cancer risk in relation to the dietary intake of vitamin K.


After adjustment for confounders, dietary intakes of phylloquinone, menaquinones, and total vitamin K, assessed with either the DQX or DHQ, were not significantly associated with the risk of advanced, nonadvanced, and total prostate cancer. These results remained virtually the same when vitamin K intake was modeled as a categorical (divided into quintiles) or continuous (per IQR increase) variable or after outliers of total vitamin K intake (defined as a value that falls above the sum of third quartile and twice the IQR) were excluded.


The present study does not suggest that vitamin K intake influences the occurrence of total and advanced prostate cancer in the general US population.





8 Replies
teamkv profile image

So what is your humble opinion on daily dosage. Husband takes 100mcg K2-7, 1,300mcg k2-4 and 1000mcg K1 in one softgel daily. Also 10,000 iu of Vit D.

He would LOVE a weekly dose of Gouda if I served it. He ate so much cheese before PCa, now no dairy AT ALL.

pjoshea13 profile image
pjoshea13 in reply to teamkv

I have never investigated if there is an optimal dose. The LEF product didn't have much competition when I started using it - certainly wasn't easy to find menaquinone-7 [MK-7]. The dosage has worked very well for my wife, & presumably for me.

Swanson has a menaquinone-7 product at 50 mcg, which they claim is 42% of daily value. But they also have a "maximum strength" product at 200 mcg. LEF uses 100 mcg, which makes sense for most people, I suppose.

Nature's Way Vitamin K-2 Menatetrenone [MK-4], 5,000 mcg delivers 6,250%. Is that a good idea? LEF has 1,000 mcg MK-4.

Your husband's dose is comparable to mine [LEF].

If he likes Gouda, an occassional ounce wouldn't hurt, would it? It's like medicine.


teamkv profile image
teamkv in reply to pjoshea13

Not at all, I am going to find the finest Gouda there is a buy a small wedge to have with a glass of wine and some fruit. 😍

patandemma profile image
patandemma in reply to pjoshea13

Trying to find out how much effect K2 has on INR or prothrombin time in patients like myself who have to be on warfarin due to recurrent venous thromboembolism. My google search has not been productive

Trecento profile image
Trecento in reply to patandemma

Similarly, my husband takes warfarin for AF (and had a pulmonary embolism some years back). Others on this forum suggested nattokinase/serrapeptase as an alternative, but this would need careful weaning off warfarin and scaling up of natto (there are posts on here about it). We intend to consult an integrative health medical practitioner to explore this so that we can put vitamin k into the supportive supplements mix (maybe search this forum on nattokinase). Best wishes.

pjoshea13 profile image
pjoshea13 in reply to Trecento

After 3 months on Warfarin I abruptly stopped & began nattokinase.

I also resumed taking a K complex supplement.

(My GP OKed this.)


pjoshea13 profile image
pjoshea13 in reply to patandemma

Vitamin K2 will quickly bring INR to ~ 1.0. Should not be used with Warfarin.


PhilipSZacarias profile image

Thank you for this. I am taking a mixture of K1 and K2 to avoid deposition of calcium in the arteries and improve bone health. There was some concern that it may promote progression, but the literature appears to indicate otherwise. Phil

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