This is of interest because it provides clues as to how to mitigate or prevent Parkinson's. See the commentary by Dr. Shallenberger that I posted below. Also, at least one person on this forum has questioned whether alpha synuclein is actually the cause of Parkinson's. This study helps to answer the question in the affirmative:
"A pathway toward cellular death named for Thanatos identified by researchers as a key driver of nerve cell degradation in Parkinson’s disease. In experiments performed in mice, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have identified the cascade of cell death events leading to the physical and intellectual degeneration associated with Parkinson’s disease.
Results of the study, published Nov. 2 in Science, suggest promising new targets for drugs that could interrupt Parkinson’s disease progression. The study, the researchers say, focused on Parthanatos, a specialized “programmed” pathway toward cellular death named for Thanatos, the ancient Greek personification of death, as a key driver of nerve cell degradation that is a marker of Parkinson’s disease. It is distinct from other known forms of programmed cell death such as apoptosis (a normal part of growth and development) and necroptosis (generally cell death due to disease or injury). The first step down Parthanatos in Parkinson’s disease is the accumulation of misfolded proteins in brain neurons. These proteins, known as alpha synuclein, have long been linked to Parkinson’s disease progression, but it was unclear how they specifically affected brain cells"
Commentary by Dr. Shallenberger from his second opinion newsletter:
"the action of PARP1 is to decrease cellular energy production by lowering the NAD/NADH ratio. It is this lowering of the NAD/NADH ratio that causes the cell death in Parkinson’s. So, what if there was a way to maintain and even increase the ratio without having to resort to drugs that block PARP1? It turns out that there are all kinds of ways.
Two safe and easy ways to increase the NAD/NADH ratio are regular aerobic exercise and intermittent fasting. Another way is to take any of the following natural substances, all of which have been shown to increase the ratio: the B-vitamin niacin, bitter melon, curcumin, fish oil, thyroid hormone, and nitric oxide boosters (CircO2), alpha lipoic acid, quercetin, and cannabis. "