given the fact that there is a rise of dementia, common knowlegde to us and on the news today that a massive ris e in london of dementia.. and altzeimers-- ok---- first of all peopel should be made aware of the lack of b12 which can contribute to this horrid brain wearing disease. given the fact that most gps etc will assess the normal serum llevel as low as 96/ 100nmol or what ever the unit s are as normal-- its always well below average, its th e lowest of the low an d the given the new knowledge now ,of knowing that there is an ACTIVE b12 test showing only a small percentage of blood serum b12 is used by cells and tissues i reckon we are all defiecient.. if japan considers that 550nmol is lowest to be treated then i rest my case. thi s horrid disease could be halted if only people were or had been given b12 , it isnt toxic so to save the nation , we should be treated forewith with b12, if we cant absorb then we are not get any of it anyway. and then they wonder why there is so much of alz and dem's about . i say take stock if your loved ones an d give them b12 and the knowledge that they need and then th e gold stuff b12. also a lack of vit d has the same affect.