Thyroid Hormone Resistance

There is a difference between hypothyroidism where there is a deficiency of thyroid hormone, and thyroid hormone resistance.

The same amount of thyroid hormone is found circulating for (within the 'normal' reference range) that would maintain normal metabolism in cells in a healthy person. But due to the resistance to the thyroid hormone the cells are not maintained adequately.

Those people [with thyroid hormone resistance] need a much higher dosage of hormones. This falls in line with the previous pre 1970's principle of raising the dose until a person actually feels normal. This dosage now would cause most endocrinologists to scream, “You’re going to die of heart attack if you don’t get off that!"

The easier self help solution is to 'flip' the biochemistry using a ketogenic diet and the use of an L-Arginine compound such as Ark1 The preferred diet is Ketogenic, paleo will often not do it . Using this approach the cells are running on a different energy mechanism and the Ark1 is increasing oxygen and blood delivery to the energy starved cells.

While not a total solution it will help improve utilisation of the thyroid hormone that you have in circulation.


6 Replies

Hi NaturopathR,

Do you have links to support a ketogenic diet and the use of an L-Arginine compound such as Ark1 will improve utilisation of thyroid hormone?


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Dong, J. Y., Qin, L. Q., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Y., Wang, J., Arigoni, F., and Zhang, W. Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Am.Heart J 2011;162(6):959-965. View abstract.

Doutreleau, S., Rouyer, O., Di, Marco P., Lonsdorfer, E., Richard, R., Piquard, F., and Geny, B. L-arginine supplementation improves exercise capacity after a heart transplant. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2010;91(5):1261-1267. View abstract.

Drexler, H., Fischell, T. A., Pinto, F. J., Chenzbraun, A., Botas, J., Cooke, J. P., and Alderman, E. L. Effect of L-arginine on coronary endothelial function in cardiac transplant recipients. Relation to vessel wall morphology. Circulation 1994;89(4):1615-1623. View abstract.

Drexler, H., Zeiher, A. M., Meinzer, K., and Just, H. Correction of endothelial dysfunction in coronary microcirculation of hypercholesterolaemic patients by L-arginine. Lancet 12-21-1991;338(8782-8783):1546-1550. View abstract.

Drover, J. W., Dhaliwal, R., Weitzel, L., Wischmeyer, P. E., Ochoa, J. B., and Heyland, D. K. Perioperative use of arginine-supplemented diets: a systematic review of the evidence. J Am.Coll.Surg. 2011;212(3):385-99, 399. View abstract.

Dudek, D., Legutko, J., Heba, G., Bartus, S., Partyka, L., Huk, I., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Kaluza, G. L., and Dubiel, J. S. L-arginine supplementation does not inhibit neointimal formation after coronary stenting in human beings: an intravascular ultrasound study. Am Heart J 2004;147(4):E12. View abstract.

Egashira, K., Hirooka, Y., Kuga, T., Mohri, M., and Takeshita, A. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms. Circulation 7-15-1996;94(2):130-134. View abstract.

El-Sheikh, N. M. and Khalil, F. A. L-arginine and L-glutamine as immunonutrients and modulating agents for oxidative stress and toxicity induced by sodium nitrite in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2011;49(4):758-762. View abstract.

Elam, R. P., Hardin, D. H., Sutton, R. A., and Hagen, L. Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. J Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 1989;29(1):52-56. View abstract.

Ellinger, S. and Stehle, P. Efficacy of vitamin supplementation in situations with wound healing disorders: results from clinical intervention studies. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2009;12(6):588-595. View abstract.

Eshghi F. The efficacy of L-arginine gel for treatment of chronic anal fissure compared to surgical sphincterotomy. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;7(3):481-484.

Evora, P. R., Evora, P. M., Celotto, A. C., Rodrigues, A. J., and Joviliano, E. E. Cardiovascular therapeutics targets on the NO-sGC-cGMP signaling pathway: a critical overview. Curr.Drug Targets. 2012;13(9):1207-1214. View abstract.

Facchinetti, F., Longo, M., Piccinini, F., Neri, I., and Volpe, A. L-arginine infusion reduces blood pressure in preeclamptic women through nitric oxide release. J Soc Gynecol.Investig. 1999;6(4):202-207. View abstract.

Facchinetti, F., Saade, G. R., Neri, I., Pizzi, C., Longo, M., and Volpe, A. L-arginine supplementation in patients with gestational hypertension: a pilot study. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2007;26(1):121-130. View abstract.

Fahs, C. A., Heffernan, K. S., and Fernhall, B. Hemodynamic and vascular response to resistance exercise with L-arginine. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2009;41(4):773-779. View abstract.

Fallon, E. M., Nehra, D., Potemkin, A. K., Gura, K. M., Simpser, E., Compher, C., and Puder, M. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: nutrition support of neonatal patients at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2012;36(5):506-523. View abstract.

Fan, X. Y., van den Berg, A., Snoek, M., van der Flier, L. G., Smids, B., Jansen, H. M., Liu, R. Y., and Lutter, R. Arginine deficiency augments inflammatory mediator production by airway epithelial cells in vitro. Respir.Res 2009;10:62. View abstract.

Farreras, N., Artigas, V., Cardona, D., Rius, X., Trias, M., and Gonzalez, J. A. Effect of early postoperative enteral immunonutrition on wound healing in patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. Clin.Nutr 2005;24(1):55-65. View abstract.

Finco, C., Magnanini, P., Sarzo, G., Vecchiato, M., Luongo, B., Savastano, S., Bortoliero, M., Barison, P., and Merigliano, S. Prospective randomized study on perioperative enteral immunonutrition in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg.Endosc. 2007;21(7):1175-1179. View abstract.

Fiorito, C., Balestrieri, M. L., Crimi, E., Giovane, A., Grimaldi, V., Minucci, P. B., Servillo, L., D'Armiento, F. P., Farzati, B., and Napoli, C. Effect of L-arginine on circulating endothelial progenitor cells and VEGF after moderate physical training in mice. Int.J Cardiol 6-6-2008;126(3):421-423. View abstract.

Fiorucci, S., Distrutti, E., Quintieri, A., Sarpi, L., Spirchez, Z., Gulla, N., and Morelli, A. L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway modulates gastric motility and gallbladder emptying induced by erythromycin and liquid meal in humans. Dig.Dis Sci. 1995;40(6):1365-1371. View abstract.

Fisman, E. Z., Tenenbaum, A., Shapira, I., Pines, A., and Motro, M. The nitric oxide pathway: is L-arginine a gate to the new millennium medicine? A meta-analysis of L-arginine effects. J Med. 1999;30(3-4):131-148. View abstract.

Fons, C., Sempere, A., Arias, A., Lopez-Sala, A., Poo, P., Pineda, M., Mas, A., Vilaseca, M. A., Salomons, G. S., Ribes, A., Artuch, R., and Campistol, J. Arginine supplementation in four patients with X-linked creatine transporter defect. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2008;31(6):724-728. View abstract.

Fontanive, P., Saponati, G., Iurato, A., Volterrani, C., Boni, A., Piccioni, L., and Dini, F. L. Effects of L-arginine on the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire quality-of-life score in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Med.Sci.Monit. 2009;15(12):CR606-CR611. View abstract.

Fricke, O., Baecker, N., Heer, M., Tutlewski, B., and Schoenau, E. The effect of L-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women. Clin.Physiol Funct.Imaging 2008;28(5):307-311. View abstract.

Fukumoto, Y., Urabe, Y., Kubo, T., Kaku, T., Egashira, K., Shimokawa, H., and Takeshita, A. Augmented vasodilator response to L-arginine after coronary angioplasty may attenuate restenosis. Heart Vessels 2002;16(5):171-174. View abstract.

Furuno T, Mullen MJ Thorne SA Thomson H Donald AE Powe A et al. Intravenous L-arginine restores endothelial function in healthy young smokers (abstract). Circulation 1996;94:3052.

Gad, M. Z., El-Mesallamy, H. O., and Sanad, E. F. hsCRP, sICAM-1 and TAFI in hemodialysis patients: linking inflammation and hypofibrinolysis to cardiovascular events. Kidney Blood Press Res 2008;31(6):391-397. View abstract.

Garhofer, G., Resch, H., Lung, S., Weigert, G., and Schmetterer, L. Intravenous administration of L-arginine increases retinal and choroidal blood flow. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(1):69-76. View abstract.

Gaston, R. S., Schlessinger, S. D., Sanders, P. W., Barker, C. V., Curtis, J. J., and Warnock, D. G. Cyclosporine inhibits the renal response to L-arginine in human kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995;5(7):1426-1433. View abstract.

Gentile, V., Antonini, G., Antonella, Bertozzi M., Dinelli, N., Rizzo, C., Ashraf, Virmani M., and Koverech, A. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(9):2223-2228. View abstract.

George, J., Shmuel, S. B., Roth, A., Herz, I., Izraelov, S., Deutsch, V., Keren, G., and Miller, H. L-arginine attenuates lymphocyte activation and anti-oxidized LDL antibody levels in patients undergoing angioplasty. Atherosclerosis 2004;174(2):323-327. View abstract.

Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Gentilini, O., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., and Di, Carlo, V. Artificial nutrition after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreas 2000;21(4):344-351. View abstract.

Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Nespoli, L., Radaelli, G., Beneduce, A., and Di, Carlo, V. A randomized controlled trial of preoperative oral supplementation with a specialized diet in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroenterology 2002;122(7):1763-1770. View abstract.

Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Vignali, A., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., Bisagni, P., and Di, Carlo, V. Effect of route of delivery and formulation of postoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing major operations for malignant neoplasms. Arch.Surg. 1997;132(11):1222-1229. View abstract.

Giger, U., Buchler, M., Farhadi, J., Berger, D., Husler, J., Schneider, H., Krahenbuhl, S., and Krahenbuhl, L. Preoperative immunonutrition suppresses perioperative inflammatory response in patients with major abdominal surgery-a randomized controlled pilot study. Ann.Surg.Oncol. 2007;14(10):2798-2806. View abstract.

Giuggioli, D., Colaci, M., Sebastiani, M., and Ferri, C. L-Arginine in pregnant scleroderma patients. Clin.Rheumatol. 2010;29(8):937-939. View abstract.

Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Coppola, L., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Giunta, R., Nappo, F., Lucarelli, C., and D'Onofrio, F. Vascular effects of acute hyperglycemia in humans are reversed by L-arginine. Evidence for reduced availability of nitric oxide during hyperglycemia. Circulation 4-1-1997;95(7):1783-1790. View abstract.

Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Coppola, L., Cozzolino, D., and D'Onofrio, F. The vascular effects of L-Arginine in humans. The role of endogenous insulin. J Clin.Invest 2-1-1997;99(3):433-438. View abstract.

Glueck, C. J., Munjal, J., Khan, A., Umar, M., and Wang, P. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase T-786C mutation, a reversible etiology of Prinzmetal's angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 3-15-2010;105(6):792-796. View abstract.

Goligorsky, M. S. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: from structure to function in one aspartic substitution. Kidney Int. 2009;75(3):255-257. View abstract.

Gosselink, M. P., Darby, M., Zimmerman, D. D., Gruss, H. J., and Schouten, W. R. Treatment of chronic anal fissure by application of L-arginine gel: a phase II study in 15 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2005;48(4):832-837. View abstract.

Grasemann, H., Grasemann, C., Kurtz, F., Tietze-Schillings, G., Vester, U., and Ratjen, F. Oral L-arginine supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients: a placebo-controlled study. Eur.Respir.J 2005;25(1):62-68. View abstract.

Griffin, N., Zimmerman, D. D., Briel, J. W., Gruss, H. J., Jonas, M., Acheson, A. G., Neal, K., Scholefield, J. H., and Schouten, W. R. Topical L-arginine gel lowers resting anal pressure: possible treatment for anal fissure. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45(10):1332-1336. View abstract.

Gryglewski, R. J., Grodzinska, L., Kostka-Trabka, E., Korbut, R., Bieroon, K., Goszcz, A., and Slawinski, M. Treatment with L-arginine is likely to stimulate generation of nitric oxide in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 1996;108(4):111-116. View abstract.

Guttman, H., Zimlichman, R., Boaz, M., Matas, Z., and Shargorodsky, M. Effect of Long-Term L-Arginine Supplementation on Arterial Compliance and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular risk Factors: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 6-7-2010; View abstract.

Hackett, A., Gillard, J., and Wilcken, B. n of 1 trial for an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency carrier. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(2):157-161. View abstract.

Hand, M. F., Haynes, W. G., and Webb, D. J. Hemodialysis and L-arginine, but not D-arginine, correct renal failure-associated endothelial dysfunction. Kidney Int. 1998;53(4):1068-1077. View abstract.

Harston, G. W., Sutherland, B. A., Kennedy, J., and Buchan, A. M. The contribution of L-arginine to the neurotoxicity of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following cerebral ischemia: a review of rtPA neurotoxicity. J Cereb.Blood Flow Metab 2010;30(11):1804-1816. View abstract.

Hayde, M., Vierhapper, H., Lubec, B., Popow, C., Weninger, M., Xi, Z., and Lubec, G. Low-dose dietary L-arginine increases plasma interleukin 1 alpha but not interleukin 1 beta in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cytokine 1994;6(1):79-82. View abstract.

Hayes, G. L., McKinzie, B. P., Bullington, W. M., Cooper, T. B., and Pilch, N. A. Nutritional supplements in critical illness. AACN.Adv.Crit Care 2011;22(4):301-316. View abstract.

Hazem, A., Elamin, M. B., Malaga, G., Bancos, I., Prevost, Y., Zeballos-Palacios, C., Velasquez, E. R., Erwin, P. J., Natt, N., Montori, V. M., and Murad, M. H. The accuracy of diagnostic tests for GH deficiency in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur.J Endocrinol. 2011;165(6):841-849. View abstract.

Helminen, H., Raitanen, M., and Kellosalo, J. Immunonutrition in elective gastrointestinal surgery patients. Scand.J Surg. 2007;96(1):46-50. View abstract.

Herman, W. H., Fajans, S. S., Smith, M. J., Polonsky, K. S., Bell, G. I., and Halter, J. B. Diminished insulin and glucagon secretory responses to arginine in nondiabetic subjects with a mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha/MODY1 gene. Diabetes 1997;46(11):1749-1754. View abstract.

Hertz, P. and Richardson, J. A. Arginine-induced hyperkalemia in renal failure patients. Arch.Intern.Med. 1972;130(5):778-780. View abstract.

Heyman, H., Van De Looverbosch, D. E., Meijer, E. P., and Schols, J. M. Benefits of an oral nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in long-term care residents. J Wound Care 2008;17(11):476-8, 480. View abstract.

Heys, S. D., Ogston, K., Miller, I., Hutcheon, A. W., Walker, L. G., Sarker, T. K., Dewar, J., Ah-See, A. K., and Eremin, O. Potentiation of the response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer by dietary supplementation with L-arginine: results of a randomised controlled trial. Int.J Oncol. 1998;12(1):221-225. View abstract.

Heys, S. D., Segar, A., Payne, S., Bruce, D. M., Kernohan, N., and Eremin, O. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine: modulation of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 1997;84(2):238-241. View abstract.

Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ono, N., Hiraga, H., Yoshimura, M., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., Kambe, M., and Kajiyama, G. Intravenous administration of L-arginine inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme in humans. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1995;80(7):2198-2202. View abstract.

Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ozono, R., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., and Kajiyama, G. Effects of L-arginine infusion on renal hemodynamics in patients with mild essential hypertension. Hypertension 1995;25(4 Pt 2):898-902. View abstract.

Hind, J. M. and Doodson, A. C. Oral L-arginine supplementation has no effect on cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure in man. Clin.Auton.Res 1994;4(6):293-297. View abstract.

Hiramoto, M., Maekawa, N., Kuge, T., Ayabe, F., Watanabe, A., Masaike, Y., Hatakeyama, M., Handa, H., and Imai, T. High-performance affinity chromatography method for identification of L-arginine interacting factors using magnetic nanobeads. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2010;24(6):606-612. View abstract.

Hirooka, Y., Egashira, K., Imaizumi, T., Tagawa, T., Kai, H., Sugimachi, M., and Takeshita, A. Effect of L-arginine on acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation differs between the coronary and forearm vasculatures in humans. J Am Coll.Cardiol 1994;24(4):948-955. View abstract.

Hladunewich, M. A., Derby, G. C., Lafayette, R. A., Blouch, K. L., Druzin, M. L., and Myers, B. D. Effect of L-arginine therapy on the glomerular injury of preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107(4):886-895. View abstract.

Houwing, R. H., Rozendaal, M., Wouters-Wesseling, W., Beulens, J. W., Buskens, E., and Haalboom, J. R. A randomised, double-blind assessment of the effect of nutritional supplementation on the prevention of pressure ulcers in hip-fracture patients. Clin.Nutr. 2003;22(4):401-405. View abstract.

Howell, K., Costello, C. M., Sands, M., Dooley, I., and McLoughlin, P. L-Arginine promotes angiogenesis in the chronically hypoxic lung: a novel mechanism ameliorating pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol.Physiol 2009;296(6):L1042-L1050. View abstract.

Hrncic, D., Rasic-Markovic, A., Krstic, D., Macut, D., Djuric, D., and Stanojlovic, O. The role of nitric oxide in homocysteine thiolactone-induced seizures in adult rats. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 2010;30(2):219-231. View abstract.

Huang, C. C., Lin, T. J., Lu, Y. F., Chen, C. C., Huang, C. Y., and Lin, W. T. Protective effects of L-arginine supplementation against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in young rat tissues. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52(5):306-315. View abstract.

Huang, C. C., Tsai, S. C., and Lin, W. T. Potential ergogenic effects of L-arginine against oxidative and inflammatory stress induced by acute exercise in aging rats. Exp.Gerontol. 2008;43(6):571-577. View abstract.

Huang, H. S., Ma, M. C., and Chen, J. Chronic L-arginine administration increases oxidative and nitrosative stress in rat hyperoxaluric kidneys and excessive crystal deposition. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2008;295(2):F388-F396. View abstract.

Hughes, N., Mason, S., Jeffery, P., Welton, H., Tobin, M., O'Shea, C., and Browne, M. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a test dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm sodium fluoride versus a marketed control dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity. J Clin.Dent. 2010;21(2):49-55. View abstract.

Jablecka, A., Checinski, P., Krauss, H., Micker, M., and Ast, J. The influence of two different doses of L-arginine oral supplementation on nitric oxide (NO) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) in atherosclerotic patients. Med.Sci.Monit. 2004;10(1):CR29-CR32. View abstract.

Jahangir, E., Vita, J. A., Handy, D., Holbrook, M., Palmisano, J., Beal, R., Loscalzo, J., and Eberhardt, R. T. The effect of L-arginine and creatine on vascular function and homocysteine metabolism. Vasc.Med. 2009;14(3):239-248. View abstract.

Javanmard, S. H., Gheisari, Y., Soleimani, M., Nematbakhsh, M., and Monajemi, A. Effect of L-arginine on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Int.J Cardiol 8-20-2010;143(2):213-216. View abstract.

Javanmard, S. H., Nematbakhsh, M., Mahmoodi, F., and Mohajeri, M. R. l-Arginine supplementation enhances eNOS expression in experimental model of hypercholesterolemic rabbits aorta. Pathophysiology. 2009;16(1):9-13. View abstract.

Jezova, D., Makatsori, A., Smriga, M., Morinaga, Y., and Duncko, R. Subchronic treatment with amino acid mixture of L-lysine and L-arginine modifies neuroendocrine activation during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety. Nutr.Neurosci. 2005;8(3):155-160. View abstract.

Jiang, X. H., Li, N., Zhu, W. M., Wu, G. H., Quan, Z. W., and Li, J. S. Effects of postoperative immune-enhancing enteral nutrition on the immune system, inflammatory responses, and clinical outcome. Chin Med.J (Engl.) 2004;117(6):835-839. View abstract.

Jiang, Z. M., Gu, Z. Y., Chen, F. L., Wang, X. R., Li, Z. J., Xu, Y., and Li, R. [The role of immune enhanced enteral nutrition on plasma amino acid, gut permeability and clinical outcome (a randomized, double blind, controlled, multi-center clinical trail with 120 cases)]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 2001;23(5):515-518. View abstract.

Jiang, Z., Kejian, H., Lei, C. Y., and Gu, K. Effects of L-arginine cardioplegia on myocardium. J Extra.Corpor.Technol. 2001;33(1):10-14. View abstract.

Jobgen, W., Fu, W. J., Gao, H., Li, P., Meininger, C. J., Smith, S. B., Spencer, T. E., and Wu, G. High fat feeding and dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulate gene expression in rat white adipose tissue. Amino.Acids 2009;37(1):187-198. View abstract.

Jobgen, W., Meininger, C. J., Jobgen, S. C., Li, P., Lee, M. J., Smith, S. B., Spencer, T. E., Fried, S. K., and Wu, G. Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces white fat gain and enhances skeletal muscle and brown fat masses in diet-induced obese rats. J Nutr. 2009;139(2):230-237. View abstract.

Jovanovic, A., Gerrard, J., and Taylor, R. The second-meal phenomenon in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32(7):1199-1201. View abstract.

Jude, E. B., Dang, C., and Boulton, A. J. Effect of L-arginine on the microcirculation in the neuropathic diabetic foot in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Diabet.Med. 2010;27(1):113-116. View abstract.

Kargi, A. Y. and Merriam, G. R. Testing for growth hormone deficiency in adults: doing without growth hormone-releasing hormone. Curr.Opin.Endocrinol.Diabetes Obes. 2012;19(4):300-305. View abstract.

Kato, G. J. and Gladwin, M. T. Evolution of novel small-molecule therapeutics targeting sickle cell vasculopathy. JAMA 12-10-2008;300(22):2638-2646. View abstract.

Kato, G. J., Wang, Z., Machado, R. F., Blackwelder, W. C., Taylor, J. G., and Hazen, S. L. Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in sickle cell disease: abnormal levels and correlations with pulmonary hypertension, desaturation, haemolysis, organ dysfunction and death. Br J Haematol. 2009;145(4):506-513. View abstract.

Kawano, H., Motoyama, T., Hirai, N., Kugiyama, K., Yasue, H., and Ogawa, H. Endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia is improved by L-arginine administration: possible role of oxidative stress. Atherosclerosis 2002;161(2):375-380. View abstract.

Kaye, D. M., Parnell, M. M., and Ahlers, B. A. Reduced myocardial and systemic L-arginine uptake in heart failure. Circ.Res 12-13-2002;91(12):1198-1203. View abstract.

Kernohan, A. F., McIntyre, M., Hughes, D. M., Tam, S. W., Worcel, M., and Reid, J. L. An oral yohimbine/L-arginine combination (NMI 861) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction: a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and interaction study with intravenous nitroglycerine in healthy male subjects. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 2005;59(1):85-93. View abstract.

Khan, F. and Belch, J. J. Skin blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon: effects of oral L-arginine supplementation. J Rheumatol. 1999;26(11):2389-2394. View abstract.

Khan, F., Litchfield, S. J., McLaren, M., Veale, D. J., Littleford, R. C., and Belch, J. J. Oral L-arginine supplementation and cutaneous vascular responses in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(2):352-357. View abstract.

Khan, R., Kirschenbaum, L. A., LaRow, C., Berna, G., Griffin, K., and Astiz, M. E. Augmentation of platelet and endothelial cell eNOS activity decreases sepsis-related neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions. Shock 2010;33(3):242-246. View abstract.

Kharitonov, S. A., Lubec, G., Lubec, B., Hjelm, M., and Barnes, P. J. L-arginine increases exhaled nitric oxide in normal human subjects. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1995;88(2):135-139. View abstract.

Kim, S. H. and Chu, C. C. Fabrication of a biodegradable polysaccharide hydrogel with riboflavin, vitamin B2, as a photo-initiator and L-arginine as coinitiator upon UV irradiation. J Biomed.Mater.Res B Appl.Biomater. 2009;91(1):390-400. View abstract.

Kimber, J., Watson, L., and Mathias, C. J. Cardiovascular and neurohormonal responses to i. v. l-arginine in two groups with primary autonomic failure. J Neurol. 2001;248(12):1036-1041. View abstract.

Kirk, S. J., Hurson, M., Regan, M. C., Holt, D. R., Wasserkrug, H. L., and Barbul, A. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery 1993;114(2):155-159. View abstract.

Kiziltepe, U., Tunctan, B., Eyileten, Z. B., Sirlak, M., Arikbuku, M., Tasoz, R., Uysalel, A., and Ozyurda, U. Efficiency of L-arginine enriched cardioplegia and non-cardioplegic reperfusion in ischemic hearts. Int.J Cardiol 2004;97(1):93-100. View abstract.

Klek, S., Kulig, J., Sierzega, M., Szczepanek, K., Szybinski, P., Scislo, L., Walewska, E., Kubisz, A., and Szczepanik, A. M. Standard and immunomodulating enteral nutrition in patients after extended gastrointestinal surgery--a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin.Nutr 2008;27(4):504-512. View abstract.

Klek, S., Kulig, J., Sierzega, M., Szybinski, P., Szczepanek, K., Kubisz, A., Kowalczyk, T., Gach, T., Pach, R., and Szczepanik, A. M. The impact of immunostimulating nutrition on infectious complications after upper gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Ann.Surg. 2008;248(2):212-220. View abstract.

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Koga, Y., Povalko, N., Nishioka, J., Katayama, K., Kakimoto, N., and Matsuishi, T. MELAS and L-arginine therapy: pathophysiology of stroke-like episodes. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2010;1201:104-110. View abstract.

Koifman, B., Wollman, Y., Bogomolny, N., Chernichowsky, T., Finkelstein, A., Peer, G., Scherez, J., Blum, M., Laniado, S., Iaina, A., and . Improvement of cardiac performance by intravenous infusion of L-arginine in patients with moderate congestive heart failure. J Am Coll.Cardiol 11-1-1995;26(5):1251-1256. View abstract.

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Koller-Strametz, J., Wolzt, M., Fuchs, C., Putz, D., Wisser, W., Mensik, C., Eichler, H. G., Laufer, G., and Schmetterer, L. Renal hemodynamic effects of L-arginine and sodium nitroprusside in heart transplant recipients. Kidney Int. 1999;55(5):1871-1877. View abstract.

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Komori, K., Tsujimura, A., Takao, T., Matsuoka, Y., Miyagawa, Y., Takada, S., Nonomura, N., and Okuyama, A. Nitric oxide synthesis leads to vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis via the NO/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in human corpus cavernosal smooth muscle cells. J Sex Med. 2008;5(7):1623-1635. View abstract.

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Lagudis, S., Yamada, A. T., Vieira, M. L., Medeiros, C. C., Mansur, A. J., and Lage, S. G. The effect of dobutamine without and with L-arginine on arterial compliance in heart failure patients. Echocardiography. 2009;26(8):934-942. View abstract.

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Lekakis, J. P., Papathanassiou, S., Papaioannou, T. G., Papamichael, C. M., Zakopoulos, N., Kotsis, V., Dagre, A. G., Stamatelopoulos, K., Protogerou, A., and Stamatelopoulos, S. F. Oral L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. Int.J Cardiol 2002;86(2-3):317-323. View abstract.

Lim, D. S., Mooradian, S. J., Goldberg, C. S., Gomez, C., Crowley, D. C., Rocchini, A. P., and Charpie, J. R. Effect of oral L-arginine on oxidant stress, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic arterial pressure in young cardiac transplant recipients. Am J Cardiol 9-15-2004;94(6):828-831. View abstract.

Little, J. A., Hauser, K. P., Martyr, S. E., Harris, A., Maric, I., Morris, C. R., Suh, J. H., Taylor, J., Castro, O., Machado, R., Kato, G., and Gladwin, M. T. Hematologic, biochemical, and cardiopulmonary effects of L-arginine supplementation or phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition in patients with sickle cell disease who are on hydroxyurea therapy. Eur.J Haematol. 2009;82(4):315-321. View abstract.

Lobo, D. N., Williams, R. N., Welch, N. T., Aloysius, M. M., Nunes, Q. M., Padmanabhan, J., Crowe, J. R., Iftikhar, S. Y., Parsons, S. L., Neal, K. R., Allison, S. P., and Rowlands, B. J. Early postoperative jejunostomy feeding with an immune modulating diet in patients undergoing resectional surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer: a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Clin.Nutr 2006;25(5):716-726. View abstract.

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Lucotti, P., Monti, L., Setola, E., La, Canna G., Castiglioni, A., Rossodivita, A., Pala, M. G., Formica, F., Paolini, G., Catapano, A. L., Bosi, E., Alfieri, O., and Piatti, P. Oral L-arginine supplementation improves endothelial function and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and inflammation in cardiopathic nondiabetic patients after an aortocoronary bypass. Metabolism 2009;58(9):1270-1276. View abstract.

Lucotti, P., Setola, E., Monti, L. D., Galluccio, E., Costa, S., Sandoli, E. P., Fermo, I., Rabaiotti, G., Gatti, R., and Piatti, P. Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2006;291(5):E906-E912. View abstract.

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Malenfant, D., Catton, M., and Pope, J. E. The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology.(Oxford) 2009;48(7):791-795. View abstract.

Mansoor, J. K., Morrissey, B. M., Walby, W. F., Yoneda, K. Y., Juarez, M., Kajekar, R., Severinghaus, J. W., Eldridge, M. W., and Schelegle, E. S. L-arginine supplementation enhances exhaled NO, breath condensate VEGF, and headache at 4,342 m. High Alt.Med.Biol. 2005;6(4):289-300. View abstract.

Mantovani, F., Patelli, E., Colombo, F., Pozzoni, F., Confalonieri, S., and Pisani, E. [Erectile dysfunction after non-nerve sparing radical pelvic surgery. Therapeutical experience with sildenafil and L-arginine evaluated by Buckling test]. Minerva Med. 2001;92(4):285-287. View abstract.

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Martina, V., Masha, A., Gigliardi, V. R., Brocato, L., Manzato, E., Berchio, A., Massarenti, P., Settanni, F., Della, Casa L., Bergamini, S., and Iannone, A. Long-term N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine administration reduces endothelial activation and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008;31(5):940-944. View abstract.

Masha, A., Manieri, C., Dinatale, S., Bruno, G. A., Ghigo, E., and Martina, V. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol.Invest 2009;32(11):870-872. View abstract.

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McMahon, L., Tamary, H., Askin, M., Adams-Graves, P., Eberhardt, R. T., Sutton, M., Wright, E. C., Castaneda, S. A., Faller, D. V., and Perrine, S. P. A randomized phase II trial of Arginine Butyrate with standard local therapy in refractory sickle cell leg ulcers. Br.J Haematol. 2010;151(5):516-524. View abstract.

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Mhanni, A. A., Chan, A., Collison, M., Seifert, B., Lehotay, D. C., Sokoro, A., Huynh, H. Q., and Greenberg, C. R. Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome (HHH) presenting with acute fulminant hepatic failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2008;46(3):312-315. View abstract.

Miller, H. I., Dascalu, A., Rassin, T. A., Wollman, Y., Chernichowsky, T., and Iaina, A. Effects of an acute dose of L-arginine during coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal failure: a randomized, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Am J Nephrol. 2003;23(2):91-95. View abstract.

Miloradovic, Z., Jovovic, D., Mihailovic-Stanojevic, N., Milanovic, J. G., and Milanovic, S. Effects of long-term losartan and L-arginine treatment on haemodynamics, glomerular filtration, and SOD activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86(4):210-214. View abstract.

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Modolell, M., Choi, B. S., Ryan, R. O., Hancock, M., Titus, R. G., Abebe, T., Hailu, A., Muller, I., Rogers, M. E., Bangham, C. R., Munder, M., and Kropf, P. Local suppression of T cell responses by arginase-induced L-arginine depletion in nonhealing leishmaniasis. PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis 2009;3(7):e480. View abstract.

Monti, L. D., Galluccio, E., Lucotti, P., Setola, E., Costa, S., Fontana, B., Oldani, M., Merante, D., Di, Blasi P., Bosi, E., and Piatti, P. M. Beneficial role of L-arginine in cardiac matrix remodelling in insulin resistant rats. Eur.J Clin.Invest 2008;38(11):849-856. View abstract.

Morgante, G., Scolaro, V., Tosti, C., Di, Sabatino A., Piomboni, P., and De, Leo, V. [Treatment with carnitine, acetyl carnitine, L-arginine and ginseng improves sperm motility and sexual health in men with asthenopermia]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2010;62(3):213-218. View abstract.

Morris, C. R., Kuypers, F. A., Larkin, S., Sweeters, N., Simon, J., Vichinsky, E. P., and Styles, L. A. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2000;111(2):498-500. View abstract.

Mou, J., Fang, H., Jing, F., Wang, Q., Liu, Y., Zhu, H., Shang, L., Wang, X., and Xu, W. Design, synthesis and primary activity evaluation of L-arginine derivatives as amino-peptidase N/CD13 inhibitors. Bioorg.Med.Chem. 7-1-2009;17(13):4666-4673. View abstract.

Moutaouakil, F., El, Otmani H., Fadel, H., Sefrioui, F., and Slassi, I. [l-arginine efficiency in MELAS syndrome. A case report]. Rev.Neurol.(Paris) 2009;165(5):482-485. View abstract.

Musumeci, G., Loreto, C., Clementi, G., Fiore, C. E., and Martinez, G. An in vivo experimental study on osteopenia in diabetic rats. Acta Histochem. 2011;113(6):619-625. View abstract.

Naderpour, M., Rad, J. S., Ayat, E., Mesgari, M., Farahani, R. M., Roshangar, L., Tubbs, R. S., and Shoja, M. M. Dietary L-arginine and cutaneous wound healing. Ital J Anat.Embryol. 2008;113(3):135-142. View abstract.

Nagaya, N., Uematsu, M., Oya, H., Sato, N., Sakamaki, F., Kyotani, S., Ueno, K., Nakanishi, N., Yamagishi, M., and Miyatake, K. Short-term oral administration of L-arginine improves hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir.Crit Care Med. 2001;163(4):887-891. View abstract.

Nall, J. L., Wu, G., Kim, K. H., Choi, C. W., and Smith, S. B. Dietary supplementation of L-arginine and conjugated linoleic acid reduces retroperitoneal fat mass and increases lean body mass in rats. J Nutr. 2009;139(7):1279-1285. View abstract.

Napoli, C., Farzati, B., Sica, V., Iannuzzi, E., Coppola, G., Silvestroni, A., Balestrieri, M. L., Florio, A., and Matarazzo, A. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow cell infusion and antioxidants/L-arginine in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia. Eur.J Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil. 2008;15(6):709-718. View abstract.

Nathoo, S., Delgado, E., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Cummins, D., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in providing instant relief of dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride relative to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste with 1450 ppm fluoride: a three-day clinical study in New Jersey, USA. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20(4):123-130. View abstract.

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Neri, I., Monari, F., Sgarbi, L., Berardi, A., Masellis, G., and Facchinetti, F. L-arginine supplementation in women with chronic hypertension: impact on blood pressure and maternal and neonatal complications. J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23(12):1456-1460. View abstract.

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O'Rourke, D. J., Ryan, S., Salomons, G., Jakobs, C., Monavari, A., and King, M. D. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: late onset of movement disorder and preserved expressive language. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51(5):404-407. View abstract.

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Okamoto, Y., Okano, K., Izuishi, K., Usuki, H., Wakabayashi, H., and Suzuki, Y. Attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response and infectious complications after gastrectomy with preoperative oral arginine and omega-3 fatty acids supplemented immunonutrition. World J Surg. 2009;33(9):1815-1821. View abstract.

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Otsuji, S., Nakajima, O., Waku, S., Kojima, S., Hosokawa, H., Kinoshita, I., Okubo, T., Tamoto, S., Takada, K., Ishihara, T., and . Attenuation of acetylcholine-induced vasoconstriction by L-arginine is related to the progression of atherosclerosis. Am Heart J 1995;129(6):1094-1100. View abstract.

Ozbek, M., Erdogan, M., Karadeniz, M., Cetinkalp, S., Ozgen, A. G., Saygili, F., Yilmaz, C., and Tuzun, M. Evaluation of beta cell dysfunction by mixed meal tolerance test and oral L-arginine in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp.Clin.Endocrinol.Diabetes 2009;117(10):573-576. View abstract.

Palloshi, A., Fragasso, G., Piatti, P., Monti, L. D., Setola, E., Valsecchi, G., Galluccio, E., Chierchia, S. L., and Margonato, A. Effect of oral L-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries. Am J Cardiol 4-1-2004;93(7):933-935. View abstract.

Palombo, F., Cremers, S. G., Weinberg, P. D., and Kazarian, S. G. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging to the study of effects of age and dietary L-arginine on aortic lesion composition in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J R.Soc Interface 8-6-2009;6(37):669-680. View abstract.

Paolisso, G., Tagliamonte, M. R., Marfella, R., Verrazzo, G., D'Onofrio, F., and Giugliano, D. L-arginine but not D-arginine stimulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Metabolism 1997;46(9):1068-1073. View abstract.

Park, K. G., Heys, S. D., Blessing, K., Kelly, P., McNurlan, M. A., Eremin, O., and Garlick, P. J. Stimulation of human breast cancers by dietary L-arginine. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1992;82(4):413-417. View abstract.

Parnell, M. M., Holst, D. P., and Kaye, D. M. Augmentation of endothelial function following exercise training is associated with increased L-arginine transport in human heart failure. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2005;109(6):523-530. View abstract.

Pedrinelli, R., Ebel, M., Catapano, G., Dell'Omo, G., Ducci, M., Del, Chicca M., and Clerico, A. Pressor, renal and endocrine effects of L-arginine in essential hypertensives. Eur.J Clin.Pharmacol. 1995;48(3-4):195-201. View abstract.

Pennisi, P., Clementi, G., Prato, A., Luca, T., Martinez, G., Mangiafico, R. A., Pulvirenti, I., Muratore, F., and Fiore, C. E. L-arginine supplementation normalizes bone turnover and preserves bone mass in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Endocrinol.Invest 2009;32(6):546-551. View abstract.

Pepe, C., Rozza, A., and Veronesi, G. [The evaluation by video capillaroscopy of the efficacy of a Ginkgo biloba extract with L-arginine and magnesium in the treatment of trophic lesions in patients with stage-IV chronic obliterating arteriopathy]. Minerva Cardioangiol. 1999;47(6):223-230. View abstract.

Pernow, J., Bohm, F., Beltran, E., and Gonon, A. L-arginine protects from ischemia-reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans in vivo. J Appl.Physiol 2003;95(6):2218-2222. View abstract.

Petrou, I., Heu, R., Stranick, M., Lavender, S., Zaidel, L., Cummins, D., Sullivan, R. J., Hsueh, C., and Gimzewski, J. K. A breakthrough therapy for dentin hypersensitivity: how dental products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate work to deliver effective relief of sensitive teeth. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20(1):23-31. View abstract.

Petrovic, V., Buzadzic, B., Korac, A., Vasilijevic, A., Jankovic, A., and Korac, B. l-Arginine supplementation induces glutathione synthesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue through activation of glutamate-cysteine ligase expression: The role of nitric oxide. Chem.Biol.Interact. 12-10-2009;182(2-3):204-212. View abstract.

Pezza, V., Bernardini, F., Pezza, E., Pezza, B., and Curione, M. Study of supplemental oral l-arginine in hypertensives treated with enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide. Am.J Hypertens. 1998;11(10):1267-1270. View abstract.

Piatti, P. M., Monti, L. D., Valsecchi, G., Magni, F., Setola, E., Marchesi, F., Galli-Kienle, M., Pozza, G., and Alberti, K. G. Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2001;24(5):875-880. View abstract.

Piatti, P., Fragasso, G., Monti, L. D., Setola, E., Lucotti, P., Fermo, I., Paroni, R., Galluccio, E., Pozza, G., Chierchia, S., and Margonato, A. Acute intravenous L-arginine infusion decreases endothelin-1 levels and improves endothelial function in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms: correlation with asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. Circulation 1-28-2003;107(3):429-436. View abstract.

Pineiro, V., Ortiz-Moreno, A., Mora-Escobedo, R., Hernandez-Navarro, M. D., Ceballos-Reyes, G., and Chamorro-Cevallos, G. Effect of L-arginine oral supplementation on response to myocardial infarction in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive rats. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2010;65(1):31-37. View abstract.

Pinto, V. L., Brunini, T. M., Ferraz, M. R., Okinga, A., and Mendes-Ribeiro, A. C. Depression and cardiovascular disease: role of nitric oxide. Cardiovasc.Hematol.Agents Med.Chem. 2008;6(2):142-149. View abstract.

Preissler, G., Lohe, F., Ebersberger, U., Huff, I., Bittmann, I., Messmer, K., Jauch, K. W., and Angele, M. K. Recipient treatment with L-arginine attenuates donor lung injury associated with hemorrhagic shock. Transplantation 6-15-2009;87(11):1602-1608. View abstract.

Pretnar-Oblak, J., Zaletel, M., Zvan, B., Sabovic, M., and Pogacnik, T. Cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine in patients with lacunar infarctions. Cerebrovasc.Dis 2006;21(3):180-186. View abstract.

Pryor, J. P., Blandy, J. P., Evans, P., Chaput De Saintonge, D. M., and Usherwood, M. Controlled clinical trial of arginine for infertile men with oligozoospermia. Br J Urol. 1978;50(1):47-50. View abstract.

Puiman, P. J., Stoll, B., van Goudoever, J. B., and Burrin, D. G. Enteral arginine does not increase superior mesenteric arterial blood flow but induces mucosal growth in neonatal pigs. J Nutr. 2011;141(1):63-70. View abstract.

Quyyumi, A. A. Does acute improvement of endothelial dysfunction in coronary artery disease improve myocardial ischemia? A double-blind comparison of parenteral D- and L-arginine. J Am Coll.Cardiol 1998;32(4):904-911. View abstract.

Rajapakse, N. W. and Mattson, D. L. Role of L-arginine in nitric oxide production in health and hypertension. Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol 2009;36(3):249-255. View abstract.

Ralph, A. P., Kelly, P. M., and Anstey, N. M. L-arginine and vitamin D: novel adjunctive immunotherapies in tuberculosis. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16(7):336-344. View abstract.

Regensteiner, J. G., Popylisen, S., Bauer, T. A., Lindenfeld, J., Gill, E., Smith, S., Oliver-Pickett, C. K., Reusch, J. E., and Weil, J. V. Oral L-arginine and vitamins E and C improve endothelial function in women with type 2 diabetes. Vasc.Med. 2003;8(3):169-175. View abstract.

Rienzo, M., Nagel, J., Casamassimi, A., Giovane, A., Dietzel, S., and Napoli, C. Mediator subunits: gene expression pattern, a novel transcript identification and nuclear localization in human endothelial progenitor cells. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2010;1799(7):487-495. View abstract.

Riso, S., Aluffi, P., Brugnani, M., Farinetti, F., Pia, F., and D'Andrea, F. Postoperative enteral immunonutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Clin.Nutr 2000;19(6):407-412. View abstract.

Robinson, T. M., Sewell, D. A., and Greenhaff, P. L. L-arginine ingestion after rest and exercise: effects on glucose disposal. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):1309-1315. View abstract.

Rodriguez, P. C. and Ochoa, A. C. Arginine regulation by myeloid derived suppressor cells and tolerance in cancer: mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives. Immunol.Rev. 2008;222:180-191. View abstract.

Rodriguez, P. C., Ernstoff, M. S., Hernandez, C., Atkins, M., Zabaleta, J., Sierra, R., and Ochoa, A. C. Arginase I-producing myeloid-derived suppressor cells in renal cell carcinoma are a subpopulation of activated granulocytes. Cancer Res 2-15-2009;69(4):1553-1560. View abstract.

Rodriguez, P. C., Hernandez, C. P., Morrow, K., Sierra, R., Zabaleta, J., Wyczechowska, D. D., and Ochoa, A. C. L-arginine deprivation regulates cyclin D3 mRNA stability in human T cells by controlling HuR expression. J Immunol. 11-1-2010;185(9):5198-5204. View abstract.

Rose'Meyer, R. B., Harrison, G. J., Fenning, A., Jenner, T. L., and Brown, L. Chronic dietary L-arginine down-regulates adenosine receptor and nitric oxide synthase expression in rat heart. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2008;102(5):459-465. View abstract.

Ruel, M., Beanlands, R. S., Lortie, M., Chan, V., Camack, N., deKemp, R. A., Suuronen, E. J., Rubens, F. D., DaSilva, J. N., Sellke, F. W., Stewart, D. J., and Mesana, T. G. Concomitant treatment with oral L-arginine improves the efficacy of surgical angiogenesis in patients with severe diffuse coronary artery disease: the Endothelial Modulation in Angiogenic Therapy randomized controlled trial. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 2008;135(4):762-70, 770. View abstract.

Rusai, K., Fekete, A., Szebeni, B., Vannay, A., Bokodi, G., Muller, V., Viklicky, O., Bloudickova, S., Rajnoch, J., Heemann, U., Reusz, G., Szabo, A., Tulassay, T., and Szabo, A. J. Effect of inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and L-arginine supplementation on renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury and the renal nitric oxide system. Clin Exp.Pharmacol Physiol 2008;35(10):1183-1189. View abstract.

Rytlewski, K., Olszanecki, R., Korbut, R., and Zdebski, Z. Effects of prolonged oral supplementation with l-arginine on blood pressure and nitric oxide synthesis in preeclampsia. Eur.J Clin.Invest 2005;35(1):32-37. View abstract.

Rytlewski, K., Olszanecki, R., Lauterbach, R., Grzyb, A., and Basta, A. Effects of oral L-arginine on the foetal condition and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia: a preliminary report. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2006;99(2):146-152. View abstract.

Saito, H., Trocki, O., Wang, S. L., Gonce, S. J., Joffe, S. N., and Alexander, J. W. Metabolic and immune effects of dietary arginine supplementation after burn. Arch.Surg. 1987;122(7):784-789. View abstract.

Sakurai, Y., Masui, T., Yoshida, I., Tonomura, S., Shoji, M., Nakamura, Y., Isogaki, J., Uyama, I., Komori, Y., and Ochiai, M. Randomized clinical trial of the effects of perioperative use of immune-enhancing enteral formula on metabolic and immunological status in patients undergoing esophagectomy. World J Surg. 2007;31(11):2150-2157. View abstract.

Saleh, A. I., Abdel Maksoud, S. M., El-Maraghy, S. A., and Gad, M. Z. Protective effect of L-arginine in experimentally induced myocardial ischemia: comparison with aspirin. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol.Ther 2011;16(1):53-62. View abstract.

Salvatore, P., Casamassimi, A., Sommese, L., Fiorito, C., Ciccodicola, A., Rossiello, R., Avallone, B., Grimaldi, V., Costa, V., Rienzo, M., Colicchio, R., Williams-Ignarro, S., Pagliarulo, C., Prudente, M. E., Abbondanza, C., Lamberti, F., Baroni, A., Buommino, E., Farzati, B., Tufano, M. A., Ignarro, L. J., and Napoli, C. Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by L-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 7-8-2008;105(27):9427-9432. View abstract.

Sankaralingam, S., Xu, H., and Davidge, S. T. Arginase contributes to endothelial cell oxidative stress in response to plasma from women with preeclampsia. Cardiovasc.Res 1-1-2010;85(1):194-203. View abstract.

Saric, J. Interactions between immunity and metabolism - contributions from the metabolic profiling of parasite-rodent models. Parasitology 2010;137(9):1451-1466. View abstract.

Savoye, G., Jemaa, Y., Mosni, G., Savoye-Collet, C., Morcamp, P., Dechelotte, P., Bouin, M., Denis, P., and Ducrotte, P. Effects of intragastric L-arginine administration on proximal stomach tone under basal conditions and after an intragastric diet. Dig.Dis Sci. 2006;51(12):2147-2153. View abstract.

Sax, H. C. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1994;18(6):559-560. View abstract.

Scavella, A., Leiva, L., Monjure, H., Zea, A. H., and Gardner, R. V. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on immune responsiveness in patients with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;55(2):318-323. View abstract.

Schachter, A., Friedman, S., Goldman, J. A., and Eckerling, B. Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine. Int.J Gynaecol.Obstet. 1973;11(5):206-209. View abstract.

Schachter, A., Goldman, J. A., and Zukerman, Z. Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine. J Urol. 1973;110(3):311-313. View abstract.

Schaefer, A., Piquard, F., Geny, B., Doutreleau, S., Lampert, E., Mettauer, B., and Lonsdorfer, J. L-arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia. Int.J Sports Med. 2002;23(6):403-407. View abstract.

Schellong, S. M., Boger, R. H., Burchert, W., Bode-Boger, S. M., Galland, A., Frolich, J. C., Hundeshagen, H., and Alexander, K. Dose-related effect of intravenous L-arginine on muscular blood flow of the calf in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a H215O positron emission tomography study. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1997;93(2):159-165. View abstract.

Schilling, J., Vranjes, N., Fierz, W., Joller, H., Gyurech, D., Ludwig, E., Marathias, K., and Geroulanos, S. Clinical outcome and immunology of postoperative arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, and nucleotide-enriched enteral feeding: a randomized prospective comparison with standard enteral and low calorie/low fat i.v. solutions. Nutrition 1996;12(6):423-429. View abstract.

Schlaich, M. P., Ahlers, B. A., Parnell, M. M., and Kaye, D. M. beta-Adrenoceptor-mediated, nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilatation is abnormal in early hypertension: restoration by L-arginine. J Hypertens. 2004;22(10):1917-1925. View abstract.

Schlaich, M. P., Jacobi, J., John, S., Delles, C., Fleischmann, I., and Schmieder, R. E. Is l-arginine infusion an adequate tool to assess endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the human renal vasculature? Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2000;99(4):293-302. View abstract.

Schlaich, M. P., Oehmer, S., Schneider, M. P., Delles, C., Schmidt, B. M., and Schmieder, R. E. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition and L-arginine on renal haemodynamics in young patients at high cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis 2007;192(1):155-160. View abstract.

Schlaich, M. P., Parnell, M. M., Ahlers, B. A., Finch, S., Marshall, T., Zhang, W. Z., and Kaye, D. M. Impaired L-arginine transport and endothelial function in hypertensive and genetically predisposed normotensive subjects. Circulation 12-14-2004;110(24):3680-3686. View abstract.

Schon, T., Elias, D., Moges, F., Melese, E., Tessema, T., Stendahl, O., Britton, S., and Sundqvist, T. Arginine as an adjuvant to chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in active tuberculosis. Eur.Respir.J 2003;21(3):483-488. View abstract.

Schramm, L., La, M., Heidbreder, E., Hecker, M., Beckman, J. S., Lopau, K., Zimmermann, J., Rendl, J., Reiners, C., Winderl, S., Wanner, C., and Schmidt, H. H. L-arginine deficiency and supplementation in experimental acute renal failure and in human kidney transplantation. Kidney Int. 2002;61(4):1423-1432. View abstract.

Schulze, F., Glos, S., Petruschka, D., Altenburg, C., Maas, R., Benndorf, R., Schwedhelm, E., Beil, U., and Boger, R. H. L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides. Nutr.Res 2009;29(5):291-297. View abstract.

Scibona, M., Meschini, P., Capparelli, S., Pecori, C., Rossi, P., and Menchini Fabris, G. F. [L-arginine and male infertility]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 1994;46(4):251-253. View abstract.

Senkal, M., Mumme, A., Eickhoff, U., Geier, B., Spath, G., Wulfert, D., Joosten, U., Frei, A., and Kemen, M. Early postoperative enteral immunonutrition: clinical outcome and cost-comparison analysis in surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(9):1489-1496. View abstract.

Senkal, M., Zumtobel, V., Bauer, K. H., Marpe, B., Wolfram, G., Frei, A., Eickhoff, U., and Kemen, M. Outcome and cost-effectiveness of perioperative enteral immunonutrition in patients undergoing elective upper gastrointestinal tract surgery: a prospective randomized study. Arch.Surg. 1999;134(12):1309-1316. View abstract.

Settergren, M., Bohm, F., Malmstrom, R. E., Channon, K. M., and Pernow, J. L-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 2009;204(1):73-78. View abstract.

Shao, A. and Hathcock, J. N. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol 2008;50(3):376-399. View abstract.

Shen, J., Horii, Y., Fujisaki, Y., and Nagai, K. Effects of L-arginine and L-lysine mixtures on splenic sympathetic nerve activity and tumor proliferation. Auton.Neurosci. 5-11-2009;147(1-2):86-90. View abstract.

Shigemi, R., Fukuda, M., Suzuki, Y., Morimoto, T., and Ishii, E. L-arginine is effective in stroke-like episodes of MELAS associated with the G13513A mutation. Brain Dev. 2011;33(6):518-520. View abstract.

Siasos, G., Tousoulis, D., Vlachopoulos, C., Antoniades, C., Stefanadi, E., Ioakeimidis, N., Andreou, I., Zisimos, K., Papavassiliou, A. G., and Stefanadis, C. Short-term treatment with L-arginine prevents the smoking-induced impairment of endothelial function and vascular elastic properties in young individuals. Int.J Cardiol 6-6-2008;126(3):394-399. View abstract.

Siasos, G., Tousoulis, D., Vlachopoulos, C., Antoniades, C., Stefanadi, E., Ioakeimidis, N., Zisimos, K., Siasou, Z., Papavassiliou, A. G., and Stefanadis, C. The impact of oral L-arginine supplementation on acute smoking-induced endothelial injury and arterial performance. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22(6):586-592. View abstract.

Sieroszewski, P., Suzin, J., and Karowicz-Bilinska, A. Ultrasound evaluation of intrauterine growth restriction therapy by a nitric oxide donor (L-arginine). J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;15(6):363-366. View abstract.

Siervo, M., Stephan, B. C., Feelisch, M., and Bluck, L. J. Measurement of in vivo nitric oxide synthesis in humans using stable isotopic methods: a systematic review. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 8-15-2011;51(4):795-804. View abstract.

Slawinski, M., Grodzinska, L., Kostka-Trabka, E., Bieron, K., Goszcz, A., and Gryglewski, R. J. L-arginine--substrate for no synthesis--its beneficial effects in therapy of patients with peripheral arterial disease: comparison with placebo-preliminary results. Acta Physiol Hung. 1996;84(4):457-458. View abstract.

Smith, S. D., Wheeler, M. A., Foster, H. E., Jr., and Weiss, R. M. Improvement in interstitial cystitis symptom scores during treatment with oral L-arginine. J Urol. 1997;158(3 Pt 1):703-708. View abstract.

Smriga, M., Ando, T., Akutsu, M., Furukawa, Y., Miwa, K., and Morinaga, Y. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomed.Res 2007;28(2):85-90. View abstract.

Smulders, R. A., Aarsen, M., Teerlink, T., De Vries, P. M., Van Kamp, G. J., Donker, A. J., and Stehouwer, C. D. Haemodynamic and biochemical responses to L-arginine and L-lysine infusions in normal subjects: L-arginine-induced vasodilatation cannot be explained by non-specific effects of cationic amino acids. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1997;92(4):367-374. View abstract.

Smulders, R. A., Stehouwer, C. D., Olthof, C. G., Van Kamp, G. J., Teerlink, T., De Vries, P. M., and Donker, A. J. Plasma endothelin levels and vascular effects of intravenous L-arginine infusion in subjects with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin.Sci (Lond) 1994;87(1):37-43. View abstract.

Snyderman, C. H., Kachman, K., Molseed, L., Wagner, R., D'Amico, F., Bumpous, J., and Rueger, R. Reduced postoperative infections with an immune-enhancing nutritional supplement. Laryngoscope 1999;109(6):915-921. View abstract.

Sofiabadi, M. and Rajaje, F. The Histological Effects of L-arginine on Ventricular Myocardium in Iron Treated Male Rats. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal 2010;4(1):10-14.

Song, J. X., Qing, S. H., Huang, X. C., and Qi, D. L. Effect of parenteral nutrition with L-arginine supplementation on postoperative immune function in patients with colorectal cancer. Di Yi.Jun.Yi.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;22(6):545-547. View abstract.

Sosroseno, W., Sugiatno, E., Samsudin, A. R., and Ibrahim, F. The role of nitric oxide on the proliferation of a human osteoblast cell line stimulated with hydroxyapatite. J Oral Implantol. 2008;34(4):196-202. View abstract.

Sozykin, A. V., Noeva, E. A., Balakhonova, T. V., Pogorelova, O. A., and Men'shikov, M. I. [Effect of L-arginine on platelet aggregation, endothelial function adn exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris]. Ter.Arkh. 2000;72(8):24-27. View abstract.

Srivastava, S. and Agarwal, A. Effect of anion channel blockers on L-arginine action in spermatozoa from asthenospermic men. Andrologia 2010;42(2):76-82. View abstract.

Stanislavov, R., Nikolova, V., and Rohdewald, P. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Phytother.Res 2009;23(3):297-302. View abstract.

Stechmiller, J. K. Understanding the role of nutrition and wound healing. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2010;25(1):61-68. View abstract.

Stechmiller, J. K., Langkamp-Henken, B., Childress, B., Herrlinger-Garcia, K. A., Hudgens, J., Tian, L., Percival, S. S., and Steele, R. Arginine supplementation does not enhance serum nitric oxide levels in elderly nursing home residents with pressure ulcers. Biol.Res Nurs. 2005;6(4):289-299. View abstract.

Stokes, G. S., Barin, E. S., Gilfillan, K. L., and Kaesemeyer, W. H. Interactions of L-arginine, isosorbide mononitrate, and angiotensin II inhibitors on arterial pulse wave. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16(9 Pt 1):719-724. View abstract.

Straathof, J. W., Adamse, M., Onkenhout, W., Lamers, C. B., and Masclee, A. A. Effect of L-arginine on lower oesophageal sphincter motility in man. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2000;12(4):419-424. View abstract.

Strapkova, A., Antosova, M., and Nosalova, G. Relation of L-arginine to airway hyperreactivity. Gen.Physiol Biophys. 2008;27(2):85-91. View abstract.

Sullivan, K. J., Kissoon, N., Sandler, E., Gauger, C., Froyen, M., Duckworth, L., Brown, M., and Murphy, S. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on exhaled nitric oxide concentration in sickle cell anemia and acute chest syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol.Oncol. 2010;32(7):e249-e258. View abstract.

Sun, T., Zhou, W. B., Luo, X. P., Tang, Y. L., and Shi, H. M. Oral L-arginine supplementation in acute myocardial infarction therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin.Cardiol 2009;32(11):649-652. View abstract.

Sun, X., Fratz, S., Sharma, S., Hou, Y., Rafikov, R., Kumar, S., Rehmani, I., Tian, J., Smith, A., Schreiber, C., Reiser, J., Naumann, S., Haag, S., Hess, J., Catravas, J. D., Patterson, C., Fineman, J. R., and Black, S. M. C-terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein-dependent GTP cyclohydrolase I degradation in lambs with increased pulmonary blood flow. Am J Respir.Cell Mol.Biol. 2011;45(1):163-171. View abstract.

Sunderland, K. L., Greer, F., and Morales, J. VO2max and ventilatory threshold of trained cyclists are not affected by 28-day L-arginine supplementation. J Strength.Cond.Res 2011;25(3):833-837. View abstract.

Surdacki, A., Zmudka, K., Bieron, K., Kostka-Trabka, E., Dubiel, J. S., and Gryglewski, R. J. Lack of beneficial effects of L-arginine infusion in primary pulmonary hypertension. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 1994;106(16):521-526. View abstract.

Suuronen, E. J., Hazra, S., Zhang, P., Vincent, R., Kumarathasan, P., Zhang, Y., Price, J., Chan, V., Sellke, F. W., Mesana, T. G., Veinot, J. P., and Ruel, M. Impairment of human cell-based vasculogenesis in rats by hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction and rescue with L-arginine supplementation. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 2010;139(1):209-216. View abstract.

Suzuki, T., Hayase, M., Hibi, K., Hosokawa, H., Yokoya, K., Fitzgerald, P. J., Yock, P. G., Cooke, J. P., Suzuki, T., and Yeung, A. C. Effect of local delivery of L-arginine on in-stent restenosis in humans. Am J Cardiol 2-15-2002;89(4):363-367. View abstract.

Sydow, K., Schwedhelm, E., Arakawa, N., Bode-Boger, S. M., Tsikas, D., Hornig, B., Frolich, J. C., and Boger, R. H. ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins. Cardiovasc.Res 2003;57(1):244-252. View abstract.

Taha, M. O., Simoes, M. J., Haddad, M. A., Capelato, R. C., Budny, N., Matsumoto, A. H., Soares, P. C., Santos, W. M., Armeato, G. D., Araki, C. M., Gomes, J. S., Magalhaes, K. G., Tersariol, I. L., Monteiro, H. P., Oliveira-Junior, I. S., Jurkiewicz, A., and Caricati-Neto, A. l-Arginine supplementation protects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion lesions in rabbits. Transplant.Proc. 2009;41(3):816-819. View abstract.

Tahvanainen, A., Leskinen, M., Koskela, J., Ilveskoski, E., Alanko, J., Kahonen, M., Koobi, T., Lehtimaki, L., Moilanen, E., Mustonen, J., and Porsti, I. Non-invasive measurement of the haemodynamic effects of inhaled salbutamol, intravenous L-arginine and sublingual nitroglycerin. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;68(1):23-33. View abstract.

Takahashi, N., Ogino, K., Takemoto, K., Hamanishi, S., Wang, D. H., Takigawa, T., Shibamori, M., Ishiyama, H., and Fujikura, Y. Direct inhibition of arginase attenuated airway allergic reactions and inflammation in a Dermatophagoides farinae-induced NC/Nga mouse model. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol.Physiol 2010;299(1):L17-L24. View abstract.

Takasaki, A., Tamura, H., Miwa, I., Taketani, T., Shimamura, K., and Sugino, N. Endometrial growth and uterine blood flow: a pilot study for improving endometrial thickness in the patients with a thin endometrium. Fertil.Steril. 2010;93(6):1851-1858. View abstract.

Tan, B., Li, X. G., Kong, X., Huang, R., Ruan, Z., Yao, K., Deng, Z., Xie, M., Shinzato, I., Yin, Y., and Wu, G. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances the immune status in early-weaned piglets. Amino.Acids 2009;37(2):323-331. View abstract.

Tan, B., Yin, Y., Kong, X., Li, P., Li, X., Gao, H., Li, X., Huang, R., and Wu, G. L-Arginine stimulates proliferation and prevents endotoxin-induced death of intestinal cells. Amino.Acids 2010;38(4):1227-1235. View abstract.

Tan, B., Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Li, X., Xu, H., Kong, X., Huang, R., Tang, W., Shinzato, I., Smith, S. B., and Wu, G. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs. Amino.Acids 2009;37(1):169-175. View abstract.

Tan, B., Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Tang, W., Xu, H., Kong, X., Li, X., Yao, K., Gu, W., Smith, S. B., and Wu, G. Dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. J Nutr.Biochem. 2011;22(5):441-445. View abstract.

Tang, E. H. and Vanhoutte, P. M. Endothelial dysfunction: a strategic target in the treatment of hypertension? Pflugers Arch. 2010;459(6):995-1004. View abstract.

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Tangphao, O., Grossmann, M., Chalon, S., Hoffman, B. B., and Blaschke, T. F. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral L-arginine in normal volunteers. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 1999;47(3):261-266. View abstract.

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Tarumoto, T., Imagawa, S., Kobayashi, M., Hirayama, A., Ozawa, K., and Nagasawa, T. L-arginine administration reverses anemia associated with renal disease. Int.J Hematol. 2007;86(2):126-129. View abstract.

Tate, D. J., Jr., Vonderhaar, D. J., Caldas, Y. A., Metoyer, T., Patterson, J. R., Aviles, D. H., and Zea, A. H. Effect of arginase II on L-arginine depletion and cell growth in murine cell lines of renal cell carcinoma. J Hematol.Oncol. 2008;1:14. View abstract.

Tepaske, R., te, Velthuis H., Oudemans-van Straaten, H. M., Bossuyt, P. M., Schultz, M. J., Eijsman, L., and Vroom, M. Glycine does not add to the beneficial effects of perioperative oral immune-enhancing nutrition supplements in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2007;31(3):173-180. View abstract.

Tharakan, J. F., Yu, Y. M., Zurakowski, D., Roth, R. M., Young, V. R., and Castillo, L. Adaptation to a long term (4 weeks) arginine- and precursor (glutamate, proline and aspartate)-free diet. Clin.Nutr. 2008;27(4):513-522. View abstract.

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Tomi, M., Kitade, N., Hirose, S., Yokota, N., Akanuma, S., Tachikawa, M., and Hosoya, K. Cationic amino acid transporter 1-mediated L-arginine transport at the inner blood-retinal barrier. J Neurochem. 2009;111(3):716-725. View abstract.

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Tripathi, P. and Misra, M. K. Therapeutic role of L-arginine on free radical scavenging system in ischemic heart diseases. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46(6):498-502. View abstract.

Tripathi, P., Chandra, M., and Misra, M. K. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase. Oxid.Med.Cell Longev. 2009;2(4):231-237. View abstract.

Tsuei, B. J., Bernard, A. C., Barksdale, A. R., Rockich, A. K., Meier, C. F., and Kearney, P. A. Supplemental enteral arginine is metabolized to ornithine in injured patients. J Surg.Res 2005;123(1):17-24. View abstract.

Tuchman, M., Lee, B., Lichter-Konecki, U., Summar, M. L., Yudkoff, M., Cederbaum, S. D., Kerr, D. S., Diaz, G. A., Seashore, M. R., Lee, H. S., McCarter, R. J., Krischer, J. P., and Batshaw, M. L. Cross-sectional multicenter study of patients with urea cycle disorders in the United States. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(4):397-402. View abstract.

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van Bokhorst-De Van Der Schueren, MA, Quak, J. J., von Blomberg-van der Flier BM, Kuik, D. J., Langendoen, S. I., Snow, G. B., Green, C. J., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Effect of perioperative nutrition, with and without arginine supplementation, on nutritional status, immune function, postoperative morbidity, and survival in severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2001;73(2):323-332. View abstract.

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van Vught, A. J., Heitmann, B. L., Nieuwenhuizen, A. G., Veldhorst, M. A., Brummer, R. J., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Association between dietary protein and change in body composition among children (EYHS). Clin.Nutr. 2009;28(6):684-688. View abstract.

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Vigano, E., Badalamenti, S., Paone, G., Como, G., Finazzi, S., Tarantino, A., Galmarini, D., and Ponticelli, C. Renal effects of L-arginine infusion in cyclosporine-treated transplant recipients. Transplant.Proc. 1994;26(5):2622-2623. View abstract.

Vignini, A., D'Angelo, M., Nanetti, L., Camilloni, M. A., Cester, A. M., Faloia, E., Salvolini, E., and Mazzanti, L. Anorexia nervosa: a role for L-arginine supplementation in cardiovascular risk factors? Int.J Eat.Disord 2010;43(5):464-471. View abstract.

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Walker, H. A., McGing, E., Fisher, I., Boger, R. H., Bode-Boger, S. M., Jackson, G., Ritter, J. M., and Chowienczyk, P. J. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is independent of the plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio in men with stable angina: lack of effect of oral L-arginine on endothelial function, oxidative stress and exercise performance. J Am Coll.Cardiol 2001;38(2):499-505. View abstract.

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Wideman, L., Weltman, J. Y., Patrie, J. T., Bowers, C. Y., Shah, N., Story, S., Veldhuis, J. D., and Weltman, A. Synergy of L-arginine and GHRP-2 stimulation of growth hormone in men and women: modulation by exercise. Am J Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2000;279(4):R1467-R1477. View abstract.

Wideman, L., Weltman, J. Y., Patrie, J. T., Bowers, C. Y., Shah, N., Story, S., Weltman, A., and Veldhuis, J. D. Synergy of L-arginine and growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide-2 on GH release: influence of gender. Am J Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2000;279(4):R1455-R1466. View abstract.

Wiedermann, C. J., Sitte, B., Zilian, U., Reinisch, N., Beimpold, H., Finkenstedt, G., and Braunsteiner, H. Inhibition of superoxide anion release from circulating neutrophils by L-arginine in man. Clin.Investig. 1993;71(12):985-989. View abstract.

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Winer, N., Branger, B., Azria, E., Tsatsaris, V., Philippe, H. J., Roze, J. C., Descamps, P., Boog, G., Cynober, L., and Darmaun, D. L-Arginine treatment for severe vascular fetal intrauterine growth restriction: a randomized double-bind controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2009;28(3):243-248. View abstract.

Wolf, A., Zalpour, C., Theilmeier, G., Wang, B. Y., Ma, A., Anderson, B., Tsao, P. S., and Cooke, J. P. Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll.Cardiol 3-1-1997;29(3):479-485. View abstract.

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Wolzt, M., Ugurluoglu, A., Schmetterer, L., Dorner, G., Zanaschka, G., Mensik, C., and Eichler, H. G. Exogenous L-arginine does not affect angiotensin II-induced renal vasoconstriction in man. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 1998;45(1):71-75. View abstract.

Wu, G. and Meininger, C. J. Nitric oxide and vascular insulin resistance. Biofactors 2009;35(1):21-27. View abstract.

Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Davis, T. A., Kim, S. W., Li, P., Marc, Rhoads J., Carey, Satterfield M., Smith, S. B., Spencer, T. E., and Yin, Y. Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease. Amino.Acids 2009;37(1):153-168. View abstract.

Wu, X., Ruan, Z., Gao, Y., Yin, Y., Zhou, X., Wang, L., Geng, M., Hou, Y., and Wu, G. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Amino.Acids 2010;39(3):831-839. View abstract.

Xiao, X. M. and Li, L. P. L-Arginine treatment for asymmetric fetal growth restriction. Int.J Gynaecol.Obstet. 2005;88(1):15-18. View abstract.

Xu, J., Zhong, Y., Jing, D., and Wu, Z. Preoperative enteral immunonutrition improves postoperative outcome in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. World J Surg. 2006;30(7):1284-1289. View abstract.

Yan, H., Peng, X., Huang, Y., Zhao, M., Li, F., and Wang, P. Effects of early enteral arginine supplementation on resuscitation of severe burn patients. Burns 2007;33(2):179-184. View abstract.

Yan, H., Peng, X., Wang, P., Huang, Y. S., and Wang, S. L. [Effects of different doses of L-arginine on the serum levels of helper T lymphocyte 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokines in severely burned patients]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2009;25(5):331-334. View abstract.

Yang, Y., Su, Z., Cai, J., Wang, S., Liu, J., Xu, Z., and Ding, W. Continuous pulmonary infusion of L-arginine during deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest improves pulmonary surfactant integrity in piglets. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 2008;86(2):429-435. View abstract.

Yanni, A. E., Margaritis, E., Liarakos, N., Pantopoulou, A., Poulakou, M., Kostakis, M., Perrea, D., and Kostakis, A. Time-dependent alterations in serum NO concentration after oral administration of L-arginine, L-NAME, and allopurinol in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. Vasc.Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):437-441. View abstract.

Yao, K., Yin, Y. L., Chu, W., Liu, Z., Deng, D., Li, T., Huang, R., Zhang, J., Tan, B., Wang, W., and Wu, G. Dietary arginine supplementation increases mTOR signaling activity in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. J Nutr. 2008;138(5):867-872. View abstract.

Yeo, T. W., Lampah, D. A., Gitawati, R., Tjitra, E., Kenangalem, E., Granger, D. L., Weinberg, J. B., Lopansri, B. K., Price, R. N., Celermajer, D. S., Duffull, S. B., and Anstey, N. M. Safety profile of L-arginine infusion in moderately severe falciparum malaria. PLoS.One. 2008;3(6):e2347. View abstract.

Yeo, T. W., Lampah, D. A., Gitawati, R., Tjitra, E., Kenangalem, E., McNeil, Y. R., Darcy, C. J., Granger, D. L., Weinberg, J. B., Lopansri, B. K., Price, R. N., Duffull, S. B., Celermajer, D. S., and Anstey, N. M. Recovery of endothelial function in severe falciparum malaria: relationship with improvement in plasma L-arginine and blood lactate concentrations. J Infect.Dis 8-15-2008;198(4):602-608. View abstract.

Yeo, T. W., Rooslamiati, I., Gitawati, R., Tjitra, E., Lampah, D. A., Kenangalem, E., McNeil, Y. R., Price, R. N., Anstey, N. M., and Duffull, S. B. Pharmacokinetics of L-arginine in adults with moderately severe malaria. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 2008;52(12):4381-4387. View abstract.

Yin, W. H., Chen, J. W., Tsai, C., Chiang, M. C., Young, M. S., and Lin, S. J. L-arginine improves endothelial function and reduces LDL oxidation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24(6):988-997. View abstract.

Yu, H. H., Wu, F. L., Lin, S. E., and Shen, L. J. Recombinant arginine deiminase reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS-mediated neurotoxicity in a coculture of neurons and microglia. J Neurosci.Res 2008;86(13):2963-2972. View abstract.

Zajac, A., Poprzecki, S., Zebrowska, A., Chalimoniuk, M., and Langfort, J. Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(4):1082-1090. View abstract.

Zamora, S. A., Amin, H. J., McMillan, D. D., Kubes, P., Fick, G. H., Butzner, J. D., Parsons, H. G., and Scott, R. B. Plasma L-arginine concentrations in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr 1997;131(2):226-232. View abstract.

Zeng, X., Wang, F., Fan, X., Yang, W., Zhou, B., Li, P., Yin, Y., Wu, G., and Wang, J. Dietary arginine supplementation during early pregnancy enhances embryonic survival in rats. J Nutr. 2008;138(8):1421-1425. View abstract.

Zhan, Z., Ou, D., Piao, X., Kim, S. W., Liu, Y., and Wang, J. Dietary arginine supplementation affects microvascular development in the small intestine of early-weaned pigs. J Nutr. 2008;138(7):1304-1309. View abstract.

Zhang, X. J., Chinkes, D. L., and Wolfe, R. R. The anabolic effect of arginine on proteins in skin wound and muscle is independent of nitric oxide production. Clin.Nutr. 2008;27(4):649-656. View abstract.

Zhang, X. Z., Ardissino, G., Ghio, L., Tirelli, A. S., Dacco, V., Colombo, D., Pace, E., Testa, S., and Claris-Appiani, A. L-arginine supplementation in young renal allograft recipients with chronic transplant dysfunction. Clin.Nephrol. 2001;55(6):453-459. View abstract.

Zhang, X. Z., Ghio, L., Ardissino, G., Tirelli, A. S., Dacco, V., Testa, S., and Claris-Appiani, A. Renal and metabolic effects of L-arginine infusion in kidney transplant recipients. Clin.Nephrol. 1999;52(1):37-43. View abstract.

Zheng, Y., Li, F., Qi, B., Luo, B., Sun, H., Liu, S., and Wu, X. Application of perioperative immunonutrition for gastrointestinal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac.J Clin.Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:253-257. View abstract.

Zhong, W., Zou, G., Gu, J., and Zhang, J. L-arginine attenuates high glucose-accelerated senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Diabetes Res Clin.Pract. 2010;89(1):38-45. View abstract.

Zhou, M. and Martindale, R. G. Arginine in the critical care setting. J Nutr. 2007;137(6 Suppl 2):1687S-1692S. View abstract.

Zimmermann, C. and Haberl, R. L. L-arginine improves diminished cerebral CO2 reactivity in patients. Stroke 2003;34(3):643-647. View abstract.

Zimmermann, C., Wimmer, M., and Haberl, R. L. L-arginine-mediated vasoreactivity in patients with a risk of stroke. Cerebrovasc.Dis 2004;17(2-3):128-133. View abstract.

Zvan, B., Zaletel, M., Pogacnik, T., and Kiauta, T. Testing of cerebral endothelium function with L-arginine after stroke. Int.Angiol. 2002;21(3):256-259. View abstract.

Adams MR, McCredie R, Jessup W, et al. Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilatation and reduces monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in young men with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 1997;129:261-9. View abstract.

Amin HJ, Zamora SA, McMillan DD, et al. Arginine supplementation prevents necrotizing enterocolitis in the premature infant. J Pediatr 2002;140:425-31. View abstract.

Andres A, Morales JM, Praga M, et al. L-arginine reverses the antinatriuretic effect of cyclosporin in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997;12:1437-40. View abstract.

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Arana V, Paz Y, González A, Méndez V, Méndez JD. Healing of diabetic foot ulcers in L-arginine-treated patients. Biomed Pharmacother 2004;58:588-97. View abstract.

Bednarz B, Jaxa-Chamiec T, Maciejewski P, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral l-arginine in acute myocardial infarction. Results of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ARAMI pilot trial. Kardiol Pol 2005;62:421-7. View abstract.

Blum A, Hathaway L, Mincemoyer R, et al. Effects of oral L-arginine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and markers of inflammation in healthy postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:271-6. View abstract.

Blum A, Hathaway L, Mincemoyer R, et al. Oral L-arginine in patients with coronary artery disease on medical management. Circulation 2000;101:2160-4. View abstract.

Blum A, Porat R, Rosenschein U, et al. Clinical and inflammatory effects of dietary L-arginine in patients with intractable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1999;15:1488-90. View abstract.

Bocchi EA, Vilella de Moraes AV, Esteves-Filho A, et al. L-arginine reduces heart rate and improves hemodynamics in severe congestive heart failure. Clin Cardiol 2000;23:205-10. View abstract.

Bode-Boger SM, Boger RH, Galland A, et al. L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998;46:489-97. View abstract.

Boger RH, Bode-Boger SM, Thiele W, et al. Restoring vascular nitric oxide formation by L-arginine improves the symptoms of intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:1336-44. View abstract.

Brittenden J, Park KGM, Heys SD, et al. L-Arginine stimulates host defenses in patients with breast cancer. Surgery 1994;115:205-12. View abstract.

Ceremuzynski L, Chamiec T, Herbaczynska-Cedro K. Effect of supplemental oral L-arginine on exercise capacity in patients with stable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:331-3. View abstract.

Chauhan A, More RS, Mullins PA, et al. Aging-associated endothelial dysfunction in humans is reversed by L-arginine. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:1796-804. View abstract.

Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, et al. Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BJU Int 1999;83:269-73. View abstract.

Cheng JW, Balwin SN. L-arginine in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:755-64. View abstract.

Chin-Dusting JP, Kaye DM, Lefkovits J, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine fails to restore endothelial function in forearm resistance arteries of patients with severe heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:1207-13. View abstract.

Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:133-9. View abstract.

Clarkson P, Adams MR, Powe AJ, et al. Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults. J Clin Invest 1996;97:1989-94. View abstract.

Creager MA, Gallagher SJ, Girerd XJ, et al. L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Clin Invest 1992;90:1248-53. View abstract.

Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine J, et al. Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic and clinical outcome. Surgery 1992;112:56-67. View abstract.

de Luis DA, Izaola O, Cuellar L, et al. Effect of c-reactive protein and interleukins blood levels in postsurgery arginine-enhanced enteral nutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:96-9. View abstract.

Debats IB, Booi DI, Wehrens KM, et al. Oral arginine supplementation and the effect on skin graft donor sites: a randomized clinical pilot study. J Burn Care Res. 2009 May-Jun;30(3):417-26. View abstract.

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Thank you very much. One or two references would have been sufficient, it must have taken you ages to provide so much. I didn't mean to put you to so much trouble.

Clutter, there is a fundamental problem if you are health provider on the net, you get asked questions about such things as Thyroid Resistance and then challenged! Over simplification can be difficult, the more complex explanation can be long, boring and often confusing!

As and ex-diabetic who had thyroid/adrenal issues I have very keen understanding ( I think) of the information people often want to get to grips with. In short if asked again I will not post co many clinical references!



Well, you did ask Clutter !

I was thinking the same j_bee.

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