I hope some day soon, someone will be able to base an individualized diet for each of us based on the unique characteristics of our individual gut biomes. Until then, maybe all of us should try to learn who to increase Prevotella bacteria in our guts.
Another Gut Study Sheds Light - Parkinson's Movement
“Interestingly, the amount of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family was much higher in patients with postural instability and gait difficulty than in those with tremor-dominant (TD) symptoms. This family of bacteria includes several pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, and other species of harmless bacteria.”
This article is interesting. sciencedirect.com/science/a...
“ The MetaHIT Consortium suggests a classification of the gut flora into three distinct enterotypes: Enterotype 1 presents a high abundance of Bacteroides and a wide saccharolytic potential, Enterotype 2 presents a high abundance of Prevotella and a high potential for mucin glycoprotein degradation and Enterotype 3 which presents a high abundance of Ruminococcus and potential for mucin degradation and membrane transport of sugars . A more recent classification system base....”
“. For example, dietary fiber consumption leads to an increase in butyrate-producing species which ferment these fibers in the distal colon (Roseburia, Blautia, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), in the Actinobacteria phylum (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli) and variations in Bacteroidetes proportion depending on the type of dietary fiber , , , . A high protein diet is usually a low carbohydrate diet; as such this type of diet stimulates a decrease in butyrate producing species and an increase of species with proteolytic activities such as Bacteroides spp , . Dietary fat has an indirect impact on the gut microbiota diversity: a high fat diet stimulates the production of bile acids which in turn select the growth species with the ability to metabolize biles acids and/or induce the loss of some species due to the antimicrobial activity of bile acids , .”
“ Vegetarian and vegan diets tend to have a high carbohydrate content associated to a lower protein and fat content. Omnivorous and animal based diets conversely show a high protein and fat content and low carbohydrate content . The latter diets are associated with an increase of bile tolerant bacteria such as Bacteroides, Alistipes and Bilophila, , butyrate producing bacteria, specifically the Clostridium cluster XVIa . Since vegetarian and vegan diets have a high carbohydrate content, their gut microbiota are dominated with bacteria with high carbohydrate fermenting bacteria such as the Prevotella, Clostridium clostridioforme and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Vegetarians show specifically compared to omnivores an increase in the Clostridium cluster XVIII (Lachnospiraceae and Clostridium ramosum group). On the other hand, vegan show a decrease in Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae species .”
Looks like vegan and vegetarian is the way to increase Prevotella and vegan to decrease Enterobacteriaceae.
It would be interesting to see specific therapies produced. However the broad principles apply universally. I am applying them, and plan to test whether dietary manipulation achieves a significant microbiome shift, or whether, for now it will require a fecal transplant. A healthy diet consists of a variety of prebiotics - ideally sourced from fresh organic food. Up the volume of fibre, and up the variety. So eat lots of different vegetables. Fermented foods and probiotic supplements can also both help. They work by changing the environment in the gut, rather than directly repopulating with the bacterial species desired. They do this by directly benefiting the gut lining, pre digesting important nutrients, generating a low PH environment, and producing specific antibiotic substances which target the bad guys. Effectively "nice" probiotic bacteria make a bad environment for bad bacteria, and a good environment for nice bacteria, and prebiotics and diet mean ample food for good bacteria, and relative starvation for the bad guys. (Caution is required regarding SIBO) For those with PD, as I have discovered recently, its also necessary to tackle the evil of constipation and slow bowel transit, otherwise the gut is so sludged up the probiotic /prebiotic regime is trying to push water uphill. I found, when I started this, that even though I had a daily (mostly) motion, I had bottled up about 3 or 4 days worth - so the system was always 3 days behind. A good colon cleanse to produce "nice" regular stools is an important prerequisite imho.
Exercise is also thought to be helpful for gut health - but I imagine most of us are exercising as much as we can anyway for the direct PD benefits.