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Dysfunction of the brain-gut-microbiota axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism[12,23-26].
Our data also indicate that in 6-OHDA PD model, rikkunshito can normalize the delayed gastric emptying of a nutrient meal induced by LD/CD. This data may have translational application as in a recent pilot, open-label clinical study, rikkunshito was reported to ameliorate gastro-paresis in 20 PD patients of whom 16 were treated with LD/CD .
Gastric emptying was evaluated three times in basal conditions and once under mental stress. Stress was induced by means of a dichotomous listening test, lasting for 30 min, starting at the end of the meal. The results of rest and stress studies were compared. Mild mental stress has a significant influence on gastric emptying. The lag phase increased from 11 +/- 3 min to 36 +/- 10 min (mean +/- S.D.) (p less than 0.005) and the gastric emptying rate from 79 +/- 13%/hour to 100 +/- 31%/hour (mean +/- S.D.) (not significant). During a stress period gastric emptying as a whole is delayed but this is mainly due to the prolongation of the lag phase. Our data also suggest that during the stress period gastric emptying is interrupted and reactivated once the stress period has ended.