Parkinson's Movement
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visual hallucinations, mci, dementia : cholinergics of the nucleus basalis in PD

First link is particularly interesting.

Damaged fiber tracts of the nucleus basalis of Meynert in

Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl...

Nucleus Basalis.

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuc...

The primary concentration of cholinergic neurons/cell bodies that

project to the neocortex are in the nucleus basalis which is located

in the substantia innominata of the anterior perforated substance.

These cholinergic neurons have a number of important functions in

particular with respect to modulating the ratio of reality and

virtual reality components of visual perception.

Analysis of the substantia innominata volume in patients with

Parkinson's disease with dementia, dementia with lewy bodies, and

Alzheimer's disease.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl...

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the SI loss is greater in

synucleinopathy-related dementia (PDD or DLB) than in AD and that

the contribution of the SI to cognitive performance is greater in

synucleinopathy than in amyloidopathy.

Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Circuits and Signaling in Cognition and

Cognitive Decline.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl...

Molecular imaging of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's and

Parkinson's disease.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl...

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What does this mean in English ?!

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The studies presented in the first post in this thread convey that

the nucleus basalis is adversely affected in PwP, thus that

cholinergic function is impaired. This is reflected by PwP who have

MCI, dementia, and/or hallucinations. Iranzo et al (third link

below) conclude with an important point. Dopamine systems are not

the only neural substrates of PD.

Dopaminergic,

serotonergic, and noradrenergic deficits in Parkinson disease.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl...

Nucleus

basalis of Meynert revisited: anatomy, history and differential

involvement in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl...

Friedrich Lewy first observed his eponymous inclusion bodies in the

nbM of postmortem brain tissue from patients with Parkinson's

disease (PD) and cell loss in this area can be at least as extensive

as that seen in AD.

Neuropathology

of prodromal Lewy body disease.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/244...

Our observations indicate that nonmotor symptoms plus widespread

peripheral and central nervous system pathological changes occur

before parkinsonism and dementia onset in diseases associated with Lewy pathology.

The current diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease miss these

patients, who present only with nonmotor symptoms.

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