Genetic Susceptibility in case of diabetes1

Heredity plays an important part in determining who is likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Genes are passed down from biological parent to child. Genes carry instructions for making proteins that are needed for the body’s cells to function. Many genes, as well as interactions among genes, are thought to influence susceptibility to and protection from type 1 diabetes. The key genes may vary in different population groups. Variations in genes that affect more than 1 percent of a population group are called gene variants.

Certain gene variants that carry instructions for making proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) on white blood cells are linked to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The proteins produced by HLA genes help determine whether the immune system recognizes a cell as part of the body or as foreign material. Some combinations of HLA gene variants predict that a person will be at higher risk for type 1 diabetes, while other combinations are protective or have no effect on risk.

While HLA genes are the major risk genes for type 1 diabetes, many additional risk genes or gene regions have been found. Not only can these genes help identify people at risk for type 1 diabetes, but they also provide important clues to help scientists better understand how the disease develops and identify potential targets for therapy and prevention.

Genetic testing can show what types of HLA genes a person carries and can reveal other genes linked to diabetes. However, most genetic testing is done in a research setting and is not yet available to individuals. Scientists are studying how the results of genetic testing can be used to improve type 1 diabetes prevention or treatment.

P.S:The above information is sourced from a research paper of World Health Organization.

5 Replies

  • A predisposition to develop diabetes type 1 is passed through generations in family but the inheritance pattern is unknown.

    Additional contributors such as environmental factors and variations in other genes also influence the development of this complex disorder.

  • but family history in type1

    is poor.

    it is high in type 2.

    it may be that one inherits a bad gene or group of genes that

    that predispose one to auto immune conditions and then


    streptococcus or staphylococcus environment

    then brings indirectly the beta cell destruction.

  • The incidence of T1D is increasing worldwide at a rate of about 3% per year This trend appears to be most dramatic in the youngest age groups, and is completely unrelated to the current increase in T2D in children. More children with beta cell autoantibodies, a hallmark of T1D are being diagnosed with the T1D around the world each year. Although the peak age at onset is at puberty, T1D can also develop in adults. Epidemiologic studies have revealed no significant gender differences in incidence among individuals diagnosed before age 15 However, after age 25, the male to female incidence ratio is approximately 1.5. There is also a notable seasonal variation in the incidence of T1D in many countries, with lower rates in the warm summer months, and higher rates during the cold winter

    . Environmental Risk Factors. The epidemiological patterns described above suggest that environmental factors contribute to the etiology of the T1D. In particular, the recent temporal increase in T1D incidence points to a changing global environment rather than variation in the gene pool, which require the passage of multiple generations. Twin studies also provide evidence for the importance of environmental risk factors for T1D. T1D concordance rates for monozygous twins are higher than those for dizygous twins (approximately 30% vs. 10%, respectively) However, most monozygous twin pairs remain discordant. Thus, T1D cannot be completely genetically determined.

  • this is agreed

    but the problem is the term "environmental" is as large as the universe.

    untill some clue arises nothing can be said definitely.

    but one thing is certain

    in northern Europe there are more t1dm people.

    may be genetics as those people are more closer to the cromangnans.

    good luck

  • As perWorld Health Organisation,Environmental risk factors are thought to act as either ‘initiators’ or ‘accelerators’ of beta cell autoimmunity, or ‘precipitators’ of overt symptoms in individuals who already have evidence of beta cell destruction. They also may function by mechanisms that are directly harmful to the pancreas, or by indirect methods that produce an abnormal immune response to proteins normally present in cells. The T1D environmental risk factors that have received most attention are viruses and infant nutrition.

    Enteroviruses, especially Coxsackie virus B (CVB), have been the focus of numerous ecologic and case-control studies CVB infections are frequent during childhood and are known to have systemic effects on the pancreas. Recent prospective studies are helping to elucidate the role of viruses to the etiology of T1D. For example, enteroviral infections occurring as early as in utero appear to increase a child’s subsequent risk of developing the disease Other viruses, including mumps cytomegalovirus rotavirus and rubella, have also been associated with the disease.

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