TURNING YOUR KILLER T CELLS ON[SOME U... - Advanced Prostate...

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TURNING YOUR KILLER T CELLS ON[SOME UNDERSTANDING OF PD-1 & PD-L1 MARKERS]

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats

There has been sprinkled lately thru posts and responses on HU, the terms PD-1, and PD-L1 markers, and immunology responses from our killer T cells. Even though the discovery of these markers goes back a decade ago, it was not until the work by James Allison, and Tasuku Honjo, did we get a fuller understanding, of these markers, and how we might be able to provide a gateway/to open a door for our Killer T Cells to do their job, and eat up our unwanted cancer cells.

For this work the 2 above received the Nobel Prize in 2018. And from this work, a revolution in Cancer Therapy, has taken off. I reported about 6-8 months ago from an international source that at that time there were over 3100 investigations/trials going on world-wide in Immunology. How many involved the work of the Nobel Prize Winners, I do not know. But based on the number of drugs that have become available in less than 3 years, is astounding. The Purpose of this Post is for Pca Patients/Caregivers on HU, to have some understanding, of terms and to start discussions with their Doctors.

For definitions: PD-1--->stands for Programmed Cell Death 1--and is a protein on the surface of cells that play a major role in regulating the immune system's response to the cells of the body, by down-regulating the Immune System and thus promoting self-tolerance , by suppressing killer T cell activity[allowing the cancer cell to survive]. PD-L1--->Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1--is also a protein that keeps Immune Cells[again Killer Cells], from attacking non-harmful cells in the body. I. E. when Immunology Drugs are used in Cancer Treatment. PD-L1 is expressed on the Tumor Cells and binds to PD-1 receptors on the activated Killer T cells, which leads to the inhibition[the stopping of Cytotoxic T Cells. These deactivated Killer T cells remain inhibited in the Tumor micro-environment.

The Immune System has multiple levels of Brakes, known as Checkpoints, to negatively down-regulate activation and function of T[Killer Cells], and as I said above, Immune Checkpoints are important mechanisms for preventing the immune system from attacking the Host's own Cells. So here we have a situation where we want to activate our Killer T cells to kill cancer cells, but risk that the Killer Cells, will kill our good cells. So thus we need a way to brake them -->to tell them you cannot go any further. Thus both the science and Terminology of Checkpoint inhibitors has been born.

Cancer Immunology and traditional cancer treatments have completely different mechanisms. Traditional cancer treatments mainly target cancer cells{which has been a hard Get], whereas Cancer Immunology, particularly--->immune Checkpoint Blockades, and Inhibitors of PD-1/PD-L1, use the Immune system to kill Cancer Cells. One of the biggest challengers today, is that the majority of cancer patients, do not respond to current Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors --->especially against CLTA-4, PD-1, PD-L1. So the future direction will be and is in full petal to the metal, for new Checkpoint inhibitors, and or a combination of therapies, where an added drug[some in Experimentation today] causes the Cancer Cell to open its Protein Protection Doors to expose the protection that the cancer cell, uses to survive treatment.

In Cancer Cell Disease the interaction of PD-L1 on the Tumor Cells, with PD-1 on the T Cells, reduces/stops T[Killer Cell Function], and signals the immune system to not attack the Cancer Cells. So across All Cancers, the searching continues, just not in Pca. Positive reactive use of an Inhibitor that blocks the interaction of PD-L1[on the cancer cell], with the PD-1 Receptor on the T cells, can prevent the Cancer Cells from Evading the immune system.

Many PD-1 & PD-L1 inhibitors are being trialed--> but most of them are for other cancers like Melanoma, Non-Small Cell Lung, Bladder, Lymphoma's--so in our Pca research, in this area, we are borrowing from the work on other cancers. but the possibility exists that there can be a Universal Inhibitor, that does not care what type of cancer one has. As I said above not all patients[Pca] respond to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors--But the FDA has approved several blood assays, to measure the amount of PD-L1 expressed by Tumor Cells, in order to predict the likelihood, of Checkpoint inhibitor responses, SO GUYS, when your MO wants to try an Immune Inhibitor on you, ask for one of the new approved blood tests first, to see if you have a high level, of PD-L1. As these new drugs come with side effects.

A month ago as I was writing this we had 9 PD-1 Inhibitors, 8 PD-L1 Inhibitors, and there is a class of Drugs that break the bond between PD-1 and The PD-Ligand 1. If interested you can search them, as they all end in the 3 letters m-a-b. You can do a google search, for a listing, as there are so many, that have not been tried with Pca, it does not make sense for me to list them--as they have no specific meaning for us today with our Pca, at this time. But please be aware--this is where our future may lie?

All of the Inhibitors have side effects and toxicities, and all of the effects appear to be common to all the drugs, within their class. The detailed mechanism of these adverse effects are not fully understood. But they are clearly different from the Side Effects, of Auto-Immune diseases. BUT, when compared to Chemo, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors had a good deal lower reported level of fatigue, neuropathy, bone marrow suppression, loss of appetite, nausea, and constipation[a big one LOL].

Since the Nobel Prize recipients received their rewards--there is major major research, to find the Holy Grail, of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibition, so our Killer T Cells can eat up our Cancer Cells. The winning Pharmaceutical Houses stand to make incalculable billions. That is why there are so many drug candidates in less than 3 years. I Pray all those involved Good Speed. 70 more years of Chemo, is not the answer we seek!

Nalakrats

79 Replies

That was an interesting intro to a brand new topic for me. Thank you!

The whole idea, is for you and others to add to your vocabulary when discussing treatment options with your Doctors--The Doctors on top of this are mostly MO's whose only specialty is Prostate Cancer/or those doing Research in Pca, like my own MO.

Nal

Fantastic post. You wrote it so well that even I could pretty much understand the science you were describing. This post gives me high hopes for the future that there will be a breakthrough in the next few years. Thanks so much for putting in all the work and doing what you do!

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to keepinon

It's my Ministry, from on High!

Nal

thank you for the post, like the guy before me said, I can actually understand the studies you wrote about and it gives me great hope for the future for us all. I come here daily for you and a few other folks writing's to better understand what is going on with our pc and this is the best news I've read in a long time. I also pray daily for a cure and divine intervention for all of us. God bless

And May He, also Bless You!

Nalakrats

Thanks Nal for this great up-to-date information

Good analysis......any ideas on improving NK cell function today?

Doug

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Garp41

Besides these, there is a new form of CAR-T, coming---where the T cells will be retrained after being taken out of one's body---and treated at a special facility, and returned into your body to re-train your T Killer Cells to by-pass the PD-1--PD-L1 bond.Yes we have had Car-T before---but nothing like what is coming, this will be light years ahead of what we used in the past---sorry I cannot expose more, Patents are Pending.

Nal

Garp41 profile image
Garp41 in reply to Nalakrats

Thanks

cigafred profile image
cigafred in reply to Nalakrats

Yes, when I asked my MO (a principal investigator in various trials) where he thought the most likely area for a major advance was, he said CAR-T.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to cigafred

He may be right--especially when combined with Checkpoint inhibitors. Work is in process, is all I can say.

Nal

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to cigafred

By the way who is your MO, who is a Principle Investigator, at which institute, he/she, may be in a chain with my group.

Nal

cigafred profile image
cigafred in reply to Nalakrats

Dan Shevrin, NorthShore University Health System

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to cigafred

So you go to Manhasset Long Island---been 50 years since I use to roam about this area!I wonder if he is working with the Folks at J. Hopkins, Duke, and Levine Institute?

Was why I asked!

Nal

cigafred profile image
cigafred in reply to Nalakrats

Not quite--Evanston, Illinois

EdBar profile image
EdBar in reply to Nalakrats

That sounds great however it also sounds like it is years away from receiving FDA approval. I’m planning on going the Provenge route this summer now that my PCa has become refractory (detectable) although at very low levels after several years of being undetectable using US PSA test. I’m curious in your opinion if these therapies are equally effective when PSA is still <0.1.

Ed

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to EdBar

As if you read carefully we have 17-19 active drugs[PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors], that are being used today, that have come into existence, in just 2.5 years, since the Disclosure of the info ,found in the Nobel Prize of 2018---there are over another 100+ candidates being evaluated right now. There is an incredible race, going on.Provenge has been around about 15 years--it is not a Lighting Rod, but has extended OS, for a % of men.

You asked If I thought if these therapies are equally effective with undetectable PSA numbers[<0.10]---which therapies are you referring to--Checkpoint/Car-T, or Provenge or all of them?

Nal

EdBar profile image
EdBar in reply to Nalakrats

Provenge, interested in your thoughts on it’s use in such low levels or does it need a bigger active target?

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to EdBar

Not sure to that---TA, is a Major Fan of using Provenge, he must have a ton of studies, to answer this question! He recommends it often.

Nal

cigafred profile image
cigafred in reply to EdBar

I have heard a few places say earlier is better, just that insurance only pays (unless your Doc is a star negotiator) if there are detectable mets.

Thank you for this info and your distillation into a very understandable post. Found this via Google :ascopubs.org/doi/full/10.12...

Many thanks for your erudite posts

Fight on

Randy

One thing I learned from genetic testing on my cancer is that I have an unusually low mutational burden, which means checkpoint inhibitors are unlikely to be effective for me. In short, you can think of cancer as analogous to an organ transplant, and in order for the immune system to kill the cancer it has to see it as a foreign body and attack it (analogous to rejection of a transplanted organ). If cancer has not sufficiently mutated, the immune system will be less able to differentiate friend from foe, and it's as likely to attack healthy tissue as cancer tissue. I was on Atezolizumab for a number of months last year, and had significant side effects and no benefit. This was prior to genetic testing that said it was unlikely to work. Ugh.

Anyways, this is one of the limiting factors of using the immune system to attack cancer. If cancer is sufficiently mutated, then immunotherapy is more likely to succeed.

An interesting side note is that my cancer has a large number of gene deletions and duplications. Basically I'm missing a number of suppressor genes entirely and have extra copies of promoter genes. Apparently that's a great recipe for an aggressive cancer, but not sufficient for the immune system to see the cancer as an invader.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to tom67inMA

But low burden, may prove to have a high level of PD-L1 Markers--you are not looking at the entire Micro-environment of the Cancer Cell. Your points are taken---a Blood test as I suggested would confirm high or low levels of PD-L1

Nal

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to tom67inMA

Further what succeeds or not--offers just 2 approaches, 1] Kill the cancer cell with the use of external means[Which has not worked from the beginning of Pca Treatments, or 2] Have the Bodies own NK Cells do the work--where they do not care what is mis-matched, or how many Deletions or Duplications you have. They just know that the cancer cells in your body do not belong. Companion Drugs/or should I say treatment modalities combined with new Checkpoints, which by themselves have only worked for about 10% of the men. There is a fast paced race on who can get there first. I know of things not published or written, that are barely off the Lab Bench, that are being addressed with a Major Prostate Cancer Research Group, that I am privy to. I do not discuss these things as they are not ready for early experimentation on Humans.I would not have posted what I did if I did not think, that stay tuned, there are things coming.

We went from a half dozen trials just before the Nobel prize info was released in 2018, to over 3,000 world-wide Investigations/trials---your personal issues, I can assure you are looked at, as mine which are different from yours, are also looked at. In fact theymay be totally ignored, as the pointed knowledge that some of us have---no longer has validity. Would we treat a gunshot wound with a baby aspirin? Think Not!

Have faith! Stay around long enough and you may find your answer.

Nal

tom67inMA profile image
tom67inMA in reply to Nalakrats

I'm still a little fuzzy (okay, no nothing about) how the NK cells are able to differentiate between cancer and normal cells if there isn't some key difference between them. I suppose a related question would be how does the immune system know to reject a transplanted organ.

As for the two approaches, I've personally had far better success with killing by external means, though it does have the limitation that it has so far been unable to drive the cancer to extinction.

On a different topic, how much do you know about using genetically engineered viruses to repair missing genes in cancer cells? I read about an attempt to re-insert the missing TP53 gene but it only worked in mice, and not in human trials. TP53 is one of the genes where my cancer is missing both copies.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to tom67inMA

The TP-53 is still in the works as far as the last I heard. And you hit the nail on the head the Natural Killer Cells cannot differentiate between our good cells and the bad cancer cells---that is what we are attempting to do in Immunology, which is to allow the Killer Cells to know who the bad guys are, by taking down the defenses of the cancer cells--which HIDE their existence. When their existence is exposed, that is when the NK Cells can come in for the kill. Of course you have better success killing by external means---as we are just in the beginning 3 years or so, in the use of new Immunology techniques. How many times have you used Chemo--I think in your Bio, about 3 times. Chemo has been going on for 70 years---we just extend life a few months or a year or 2 at a time--and the Cancer, will do another work-around.Read the Allison work on the way to his Nobel prize--he can put it in better terms than I can. Actually I did a Post on the Nobel Prize and Allison's work--if you find it, there is a bit more info.

Nal

tom67inMA profile image
tom67inMA in reply to Nalakrats

Ah, it's good to hear they are working on targeting the immune system at the cancer. This is an example of how I naturally learn: by making incorrect statements and then being corrected :-)

I'm on my 4th flavor of chemo: docetaxel, carboplatin+etoposide, cabazitaxel, and now folfiri. Cabazitaxel excepted, I've had great responses to chemo except for the cancer growing back the minute chemo is stopped. So this time we're not going to stop chemo after a fixed number of cycles. I do hope a gentler, more effective treatment becomes available in my lifetime!

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to tom67inMA

I Pray so also!

j-o-h-n profile image
j-o-h-n in reply to tom67inMA

Ditto Nal.......

Good Luck, Good Health and Good Humor.

j-o-h-n Sunday 05/09/2021 11:12 PM DST

Unfortunately only a small percentage of PC patients have responsiveness to checkpoint inhibitors but the effect for those lucky patients will probably be dramatic.

cesanon profile image
cesanon in reply to Gemlin_

What do you mean by "small percentage "

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to cesanon

Appears from a number of research reports---a disappointing 10% or less. I think TA had a number on this.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Gemlin_

Yes they are--those that have dramatic responses are afraid to use the word---CURE. Hate to mention him--But Jimmy Carter's Brain Cancer was cured!

Nal

Nice article

Thank you Nal for simplifying and making all of that understandable. It is because of what I’ve learned on here over the past two years that I am able to speak with the MO intelligently. It is so important to be educated and know what questions to ask and participate in your own health care. You are providing a great service to so many.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Faith1111

Thanks---just doing my job!

Nal

The best part of your article (I think it is more than a mere post) is the following:

"As I said above not all patients[Pca] respond to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors--But the FDA has approved several blood assays, to measure the amount of PD-L1 expressed by Tumor Cells, in order to predict the likelihood, of Checkpoint inhibitor responses, SO GUYS, when your MO wants to try an Immune Inhibitor on you, ask for one of the new approved blood tests first, to see if you have a high level, of PD-L1. As these new drugs come with side effects."

I would encourage you to go back and bold it.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to cesanon

I think the message is clear.

Nalakrats

Thank you to Nalakrats and all who contribute!!!

God willing the answer to a cancer cure will be provided soon.

Nalakrats, Do you not get discouraged? I have read of immune therapy for 5 years. I keep hearing that in 5 to 10 years, there will be a revolution in PCa treatment. Then, 5 years later. It seems we are back to the 5-10 years again. I apologize for such a discouraging post. I can’t rise above it today.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to bdriggers

Sorry you feel that way on the Sabbath--the most happiest of the seven days of the week. These new techniques--are just less than 3 years old---the old techniques are just that---> old. I think Provenge is about 15 years old.

Why would so many companies be invested at this moment in over 3100 Investigations and Trials---around the world, where we already have 17-19 new drugs approved for limited use by the FDA---almost as fast as Trump's Warp Speed program.

Being positive, does not take work, it takes attitude--my glass is always more than half full, and I was suppose to be dead 5 years ago---you have to have attitude, Find it, Buy it Steal it.

Nalakrats

Thank you so much for the post Nal 🙏 I have been down for a few weeks now after seeing rising PSA numbers while on ADT vacation and I was starting to lose hope. This article gives me the best ammo possible to fight this thing, hope!

What was your ADT protocol prior to your vacation--->and how long were you on ADT, and how long was your Vacation--and what is your Gleason--and are there any DNA Mutational Defects determined?

Nalakrats

AlooGobi profile image
AlooGobi in reply to Nalakrats

If you were in the guru business, I would be one of the first at the ashram. Thank you for all you do on here.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to AlooGobi

Much more to come--I have limited time--so I am very far behind, on more subjects/or subsets--and feel I need to repeat some older posts as what was once written, is more important today, in some certain subjects.

Nalakrats

Nal, I was on ADT from Oct 2019 to Feb 2021 - Lupron, Zytiga, and Prednisone. Had radiation and brachy from July to Sept 2020. Vacation started 1st Feb. The last 3 blood tests went from undetectable < 0.1 to 0.2 then 0.8. Gleason score is 9. No DNA Mutational Defects found. I have not restarted ADT yet as I am waiting for a PSMA scan - scheduled for 2nd June. My radiation OC said that during radiation they had skipped radiating some of the lymph nodes as they were too close to other organs. He thinks we might be able to use SBRT once we see the results of the PSMA scan. The hope is that the rapidly rising PSA does not result in cancer getting into new organs, so far it has been limited to lymph nodes, no bone mets.

I have some thoughts, but that is water under the bridge. so your Brachy Seeds are still active I take it. Who determined that your short time on ADT, that it was time for a vacation? Gleason 9's sometimes require ADT up to a minimum of 24 months, to teach the undetectables we cannot kill, to stay Dormant for a longer period of time.Your Cancer Cells have already escaped the Prostate/Capsule long before your DX.

If your Doctors truly, understood that---a different approach may have been taken.

Letting the Cancer run to be able to see what can be seen so you can zap it, Is an interesting journey step--one I pray to avoid. I already know I have Dormant/Senescent Cells somewhere--but they are not active at this time--and will continue the Principle of Adaptive Therapy, to keep them inactive.

Nalakrats

My OC had said it is OK to stop ADT to see how I would do without it. I guess both he and I understand now that I should have done ADT at least 24-months instead of 15. But like you said that is water under the bridge. Yes, the cancer cells had escaped the prostate before I was diagnosed, I already had lots of lymph node mets.

What I read from your post is that I should go back on ADT ASAP and not wait for the PSMA scan?

There are 2 choices--I cannot choose for you, as I am not in direct contact with you physically, and I do not have a feel for your total Physical Health/Diet/Nutrition/all drugs being taken, and a lot of Etc's.1] go back on the ADT that brought you to your undetectable Nadir

Or

2]Follow the Doctors, who many by the way prefer that you let your cancer get to a point of being seen, so they may be able to Zap it---if the Cancer shows up in Hard to reach Lymph Nodes, and cannot be Zapped, or be removed by Laparoscopic Surgery, then you will have taken a step back. And some want the scan to early, and they miss other colonies that are too small to be seen. My Docs. want at least a PSA of 1+ for sensitive scans--I know some who want a PSA of 2.

Because I wrote more words on number 2, does not mean I do not like this approach.

I am neutral! You have enough info I believe to make a valued Choice in how to go. My Pathology, and my DNA defects are much worse than yours--so I have to look at things differently. Unfortunately Doctors, do not go back to the original Path. report that may be of assistance in a choice, and include any DNA Genetic Defects--> be them Somatic, or Inherited.

Nalakrats

❤️

Thanks for such a clear understandable and informative article. I hope the science develops quickly in this area.

The targets have been Identified--agents are being evaluated, many as a singularity have not proven themselves, giving way to new ones, and the investigators are using supporting other drugs/modalities to assist those that only have a 10% super positive rate. Why they work for some and not all is one of the keys, that have not yet been found. From my last meetings, with my group in Charlotte, I am even more hopeful--but while we wait--we are stuck using the Old Greasy Kid Stuff, to stay alive.

Nal

Thank you for the informative post. Hope you and your wife have a nice Mother's Day🐟

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Fanger1

Thanks!

Thank you Nalakrats

Wow what a write up! Your understanding is amazing wish I had the knowledge to confront my par mo with everything I could, but I’m going to give it a good go,!!!!every year that goes buy there is hope a new cure, new drug will be found .xx

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Jack02

I wrote this so you could use the terms PD-1, PD-L1, Inhibitors, and Immunology--and you can throw in New CAR-T Immunology--it allows for discussion--and if your Doc. is not up to speed---I might consider someone who is up to date on the new Immunology Techniques. As the next new Chemo will not be the Answer---the answer is not external treatment, but Internal Treatment--of course this is IMO Only.

Nal

Jack02 profile image
Jack02 in reply to Nalakrats

Nal I thank you so much, I was researching immunology only yesterday as we have an app Thursday coming and was going mention this very thing, i get the understanding that it is all ready available in England but only if you pay private and not on the nhs or have I got this wrong nal,? my understanding isn’t very good but I am trying to learn daily, was never very academic at school unfortunately, I will try and add a photo of something I came across, as anyone ever told you your a 💎 hope your well xx

Photo of a short link

Thanks for sharing this encouraging information. Hope is a powerful ally and clearly there is some progress being made that will make a difference for many PCa patients in the not too distant future.

I always read your posts with interest and appreciation .....

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to RonnyBaby

Thank you very much! Comments like yours keeps me working!

Nal

This forum is a blessing and you are one of the main reasons for me saying that. Thank you for all you do to keep us all informed of the latest developments. It gives us hope and that helps influence our attitude that you so accurately describe as important. May God bless you with many more years so you will be able to benefit from these new developments.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Theo2019

Thank You---Baruch Hashem

Nalakrats

Thank you Nal for researching such a complex subject and providing a detailed information to us. At present I’m on ADT and doing fine but I was told that I have MSI high, therefore I’ll be qualified for immunotherapy such as Keytruda.

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Pheart2

Yes you would be--and for those with High MSI---the results have been better than Good! I should have included MSInstability in my Post--as another Blood Marker to be evaluated.

Nalakrats

You give us all so much hope! Thank you!!

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to p00vjor

You are very welcome!

Thanks brother, I just asked my MO about this last week. She commented that there was very little research in the Pca world. We will have a discussion on this when I see her again in a month. Take care.

That was a wonderfully crafted and clearly articulated summary. Well done, Nats!

Very informative, thank you Nal

I guess it's time for my Chocolate Chip ice cream (two scoops)...

Good Luck, Good Health and Good Humor.

j-o-h-n Sunday 05/09/2021 11:16 PM DST

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to j-o-h-n

Only on my Birthday--now back to sugar free!

Nal

Thank you for the information

Thank you.

Hi Nalakrats, I’ve been following your comments extensively since I’ve joined this group last year..

Long story short.... I just finished 6 sessions of docetaxel chemo.

Psa went from 21 to 35 start to end.

Oncologist says I qualify for immunotherapy trial of the following:

cancernetwork.com/view/nivo...

Nalakrats profile image
Nalakrats in reply to Acirol

You may qualify for the Trial because you did and failed chemo---but the ones that will prosper from this trial are those with DNA Mutational loads----> the more load the better. Especially if you have BRCA-2,1, ATM, PT53, and MMR[Mismatched Repair], defects. So if you do not know, I would get Gene Mapped asap, looking for Mutations. Your utter failure of Chemo, indicates to me that you probably are carrying certain mutations.

If you read the post I did this morning on Creatine, relative to doing Immunology Drugs, I would if I was in your place, start taking Creatine as my post suggested, prior and during the trial, if you were to go forward. Since I am not a Doctor, but a medical researcher/Naturopath--I cannot prescribe or even suggest you do so--it is just what I would do. Why---> because I am a BRCA-2, with PTEN Loss, which would qualify me, if I did Chemo, which I would not--I would go off label, avoiding the Chemo---knowing the Failure Rate of Chemo to be so high with the type mutations I have. And my Doctors all agree with the statement I just made. So read my post of this morning, about helping PD-1/PD-L1 Immunology drugs, by suppling more energy to Killer T Cells. And know your Mutations--as those with them do much better, when using Opdivo & Yervoy.

Study before you jump, IMO, you may do better with Yervoy and Keytruda--but I do not know if you have any Mutations, and if so, what are they.

Nalakrats

Acirol profile image
Acirol in reply to Nalakrats

Thanks for your personalized response.... I definitely will ask these questions at my prior to meeting next week...

Hi Nalakrats - an Australian biotech company called Noxopharm have recently released results from their research in this field with their drug called Veyonda - any thoughts?

I have been following the progress---I know the 2 ways it works by enhancing Chemo drugs, especially for soft tissue Cancer, and it works synergistically in areas of my interest-->Checkpoint Inhibitors---, by enhancing their potential. I believe it is still in Phase 2 Trials.I have it in my Archive File--which means I am saving it for my own consideration.

Nalakrats

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