I recently mentioned that testosterone was an immunosuppressor & that there might be a COVID survival advantage for males with testosterone [T] below 350 ng/dL, say.
But when T approaches zero, so does estradiol [E2], because E2 is created from T via the aromatase enzyme. (When E2 is less than ~12 pg/mL, there is a rapid loss of bone and a low-dose E2 patch should be used - IMO.)
It has been noted that women are faring better than men during the present COVID crisis. The knee-jerk reaction has been that estrogen must be responsible. It is known that estrogen has an immunomodulatory effect and younger women are doing better than older women.
However, women are doing better than men at all ages, yet postmenopausal women often have far less estradiol than their husbands. Is estrogen really the answer?
Anyway, there is a trial starting at Stony Brook where COVID patients (women as well as men) will be given an E2 patch (100 micrograms/day for 7 days):
For men on ADT, an E2 patch should not interfere with castrate T levels.